Rotherham & SonsCopyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2019 all rights reserved.
The firm of Rotherham & Sons could trace its origins back to a company started in Coventry by Samuel Vale. There is a blue plaque in Coventry that says this was in 1750. In a lecture reported in the British Horological Institute's Journal in January 1924, Mr. Kevitt Rotherham said that Samuel Vale began watchmaking in 1747. In 1754 he was a partner in Vale, Howlett & Carr, which soon became Vale, Carr and Rotherham. In 1776 Samuel Vale leased premises in Spon Street for a factory.
Richard Kevitt Rotherham joined the company as an apprentice, and in 1790 he was listed as a partner. In 1810 the partnership was listed as Samuel Vale (son of the founder), George Howlett, John Carr and John Rotherham.
Samuel Vale was Mayor of Coventry in 1777, and also in 1811, 1812, 1813 and 1814. In 1784 Howlett was Mayor. Richard Kevitt Rotherham was Mayor in 1832.
Vale and Company V&Co Sponsor's Mark
Birmingham hallmarks for 1822 to 1823
On 24 January 1816 an incuse punch mark "V&Co." shown here was entered at the Birmingham Assay Office for Vale and Company. Howlette and Carr subsequently left or retired and the partnership became Vale and Rotherham.
The date of formation of Vale & Rotherham is not currently known. The Herbert Art Gallery and Museum in Coventry has a pocket watch in a gold case with an engraved bust of Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, on the inner back cover. The case is said to be hallmarked 1819/20 and is said to carry Vale & Rotherham's sponsor mark. The sponsor's mark V•R in cameo within an oval shield was first entered at the Birmingham Assay Office on 6 February 1822 by Vale and Rotherham. The image here shows a watch case with Birmingham Assay Office hallmarks for sterling silver. The date letter is the "K" of 1833 to 1834.
Vale & Rotherham V•R Sponsor's Mark
Birmingham hallmarks for 1833 to 1834
The first punch mark entered by John Rotherham at the Birmingham Assay Office on 7 April 1841 was the initials R&S for Rotherham & Sons in cameo within a rectangular shield. This is the earliest date I have found Rotherham & Sons mentioned. From 1842 the company was listed in trade directories as Richard Kevitt Rotherham & Sons, and from 1850 simply as Rotherham & Sons. In 1858 Charles Dickens visited the factory and was presented with a gold watch to mark the occasion.
In the early days watches, were assembled by traditional English hand finishing methods from components supplied by outworkers. Later frames (collections of parts assembled as rough movements) were bought in from John Wycherly in Prescot, Lancashire, and finished in the factory. In 1867 Rotherhams tested seven Wycherly frames with one set of "materials", arbors and wheels also supplied by Wycherly, and found the parts to be interchangeable. This meant that the wheels were correctly depthed, that is spaced apart the correct distances for tooth meshing. It did not mean that the pivots and bearings were within tolerance, these were still fitted by hand.
Rotherham & Sons head office and factory were on Spon Street in Coventry, Warwickshire. Although Coventry had a long history of watchmaking it was on a small scale before the middle of the nineteenth century. Spon Street was a thoroughfare in the centre of Coventry and had been an industrial area since medieval times. As watchmaking in Coventry increased during the middle of the nineteenth century, some watchmakers moved from the city centre to land released by Act of Parliament in 1845 to create a new suburb Chapelfields, and later some to a new satellite "garden" development at Earlsdon, a little way outside the city on farmland purchased in 1852 by a Coventry housing association, but Rotherhams remained in Spon Street.
In May 1864 the Horological Journal recorded the death of Mr R. H. Rotherham in his 75th year. He had worked at Rotherhams from boyhood, serving an apprenticeship and going on to become head of the company. He founded the Coventry Watchmakers' Widows' and Orphans' Aid Society and was well regarded by his workers, who presented him with a splendid piece of plate of the value of 100 guineas, on the occasion of his having completed 50 years in the business.
A report of the Great Exhibition of 1851 said that "Messrs. Rotherham & Sons, of Coventry, whose establishment was the only one of the kind in England in which machinery impelled by steam power was employed for performing many of the processes in the completion of a watch, exhibited the various parts of a lever watch in the progressive stages of manufacture. All were shown as roughly cast, then as formed into proper shapes, and lastly, as finished. Several movements were also shown, and a beautiful display of 137 watches of all kinds, from the plainest silver watch, to the most elaborately finished and ornamental gold watch."
This reference to steam powered machinery is very interesting because the manufacture of watches "by mechanical means" in England is generally accepted to have started at a later date. I think here the difference is between conventional machines such as lathes and milling machines operated by a skilled person, and automatic machines that operated themselves and just needed to be tended by semi skilled operators.
In the first half of the nineteenth century about half of Rotherhams' production had been exported, of which more than half went to America, but this had been declining. In 1856 John Rotherham (1838 - 1905) was sent to the United States as a traveller to promote Rotherhams and to try to find out why Rotherhams' exports had fallen. This fall wasn't due to American mass production of watches by machine, which was only just getting under way at the time. He discovered that Coventry made watches had gained a poor reputation in America and returned determined to alter this.
In 1876 Mr Gooding was appointed works manager. In 1880 he was sent to America by John Rotherham to purchase watchmaking machinery from the American Watch Tool Co. In the 1880s Rotherhams were operating on a very large scale by British standards. In 1890 they were reported to be making 100 watches per day with 400 to 500 employees plus about 200 out-workers active in the production of both movements and cases and the extensive use of machinery, although the figure of 100 per day seems to be an indication of potential rather than actual output.
Rotherham's Coventry Factory
The advert reproduced here includes an image of the Rotherham's Factory in 1888. The only part that survives today is the three storey building in the top left corner which fronts onto Spon Street. This contained the offices of Rotherham & Sons and now carries a blue plaque erected 1 January 2000 that was commissioned by the Coventry Watch Museum Project. The view shown in the advert is of the back of this building and the workshops that stretched away from it. These were long narrow buildings with lots of windows to admit plenty of natural light.
The two images below show aerial views of the same part of Coventry to the South of Spon Street. The plan is from an Ordnance Survey taken in 1903/4, the satellite view is how the area is now.
The buildings that I have outlined in red on the plan correspond very well with those shown in the view of the factory in the 1888 advert above. The long lines of workshops with their connecting buildings are clearly visible. It is not clear where the Southern boundary of the site was, but following enclosing lines on the OS plan gives the area outlined in green, which might have been the extent of the factory buildings by 1903/04.
The buildings outlined in red on the aerial view are all that that remains today, basically just the offices that fronted onto Spon Street. The building is now home to IDP Group specialising in architecture and landscape.
Although they remained based in Coventry, some time before 1890 the company also opened offices at 1 Holborn Circus, London, and after this some of their watches were signed Rotherhams, London. This was later to become the company head office.
After the turn of the century in circa 1905 Rotherham started to diversify into also making parts for the Coventry bicycle and motor industry. In 1914 they advertised in Whitakers Red Book as Manufacturers of watches and expanding bracelets; cycle and motor accessories; gas and electrical appliances.
During the Great War (WW1) Rotherham & Sons went entirely over to war work. They were the sole British maker of a very accurate clockwork shell fuse. Rotherhams made no watches at all during the Great War.
Rotherham's Coventry Factory in 1924
After the war Rotherham returned to watch making, producing wristwatches as well as pocket watches. They also carried on making clocks, and imported watches from Switzerland. Cutmore in "Watches 1850-1980" states that reports of British Industry Fairs show that in 1920 and 1921 Rotherhams showed at trade exhibitions cases for movements made in "their own factory in Switzerland". Cutmore suggests that this could possibly be the Rode Watch Company of La Chaux de Fonds, whose watches Rotherhams marketed, but D. H. Bacon says that they became British agents for Rode only in circa 1930.
The image here, taken from a booklet "English Clocks and Watches and Their Makers" prepared by the BHI for the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley in 1924 shows the enormous size that the factory had grown to by the 1920s.
Rotherhams also continued with their diverse engineering work, also entering the market for aircraft accessories.
In 1932 after the collapse of H. Williamson Ltd., another Coventry watch manufacturer, Rotherhams took on the British agency for Buren, and later became agents for Ulysee Nardin.
Rotherham & Sons stopped making watches in Coventry some time before World War 2, probably in the 1930s. The company passed out of Rotherham family control in 1958 to Corner Croft Engineering and was subsequently bought by Bimec Industries.
Back to the top of the page.
Rotherham Sponsor's Marks and Trademarks
R&S: Rotherham & Sons Ltd
JR: John Rotherham
The first punch mark entered by John Rotherham at the Birmingham Assay Office on 7 April 1841 for Rotherham & Sons was the initials R&S in cameo within a rectangular shield, address given as 4 Spon Street, Coventry. This remained the only R&S punch registered at Birmingham until a punch with the same initials in cameo within a diamond shaped shield was registered in 1912, and then three similar punches were registered in 1917. These last entries seem strange because it is said that Rotherhams produced only arms components, mainly fuses, for the duration of the Great War, but I believe these punches were used on the cases of imported Swiss watches.
A mark of the initials JR in a serif face in cameo within a diamond shield (not shown) was entered at the Birmingham Assay Office, together with the same initials JR in a sans-serif face in cameo within a diamond shield as shown here, on 15 July 1886 by John Rotherham, as watch & case makers trading as Rotherham & Sons of 4 Spon Street, Coventry. Similar punches were registered in 1888, 1901 and 1908.
A punch with the initials JR in a sans-serif face in cameo within a diamond shield as shown here was entered at the London Assay Office on 7 March 1881 by John Rotherham.
Rotherhams also imported watches as well as making them. The second image shows hallmarks in an imported Borgel watch. The sponsor's mark of the initials R&S in a rectangular shield with cut corners was entered at the London Assay Office in 1907 in response to the Assay of Imported Watch-Cases Act. It is shown here alongside London import hallmarks for sterling silver, the date letter "i" is for 1924 to 1925.
R&S in cameo within Diamond
Rotherham Registered Trademarks
RS with Trident on Swiss movement
R&S on Swiss movement
Philip Priestly lists punches that made the mark with rectangular shield as being registered at Birmingham in 1841 and in London between 1907 and 1919, and the R&S mark with diamond shield as being registered in Birmingham between 1912 and 1917. The Birmingham assay office would be the nearest office to mark watches made in Coventry, whereas the London assay office would be a more natural choice for watches imported from Switzerland, which would come in by ship through the port of London, and a large proportion would then be retailed in London.
The British Trade Mark Registration Act 1875 came into effect on 1 January 1876 and many British manufacturers registered trademarks. The image here shows a trademark registered by John Rotherham on behalf of Rotherham & Sons on 9 February 1880. A virtually identical mark was registered in May 1915 with the central serpent wrapped around a trident as shown in the upper right corner.
Swiss movements imported by Rotherhams sometimes carry trademarks on the movements such as the initials RS either side of a trident or the initials R&S in an oval such as the ones shown here.
JR: John Rotherham or Joseph Radges?
J.R: Joseph Radges, London Assay Office 1876
JR: John Rotherham 1881
There is a temptation to ascribe any "JR" sponsor's mark in a nineteenth century English watchcase to John Rotherham. However, the larger image here shows a JR mark that was not entered by John Rotherham.
The large image shows the inside of a watchcase back with London Assay Office hallmarks for sterling silver, the leopard's head and lion passant. The date letter "M" is for 1887 to 1888, remember that date letter punches were changed part way through the year when new wardens were elected, so a date letter refers to parts of two calendar years.
The sponsor's mark is not the similar punch mark that was entered at the London Assay Office in 1881 by John Rotherham, which is the shown in the smaller image. The surround of Rotherham's mark is square, set in a diamond shape, the face of the initials ‘JR’ is sans-serif, and there is no period between the initials.
The sponsor's mark in the watch case has a diamond shaped suppround that is wider than it is tall, the initials ‘J.R’ are in a serif face and have a period between them. This punch mark entered by Joseph Radges at the London Assay Office in November 1876 (Culme 9893). Joseph Radges is recorded as a watchcase maker, address 11 & 14 Summerland House, Butts, Coventry.
Although Radges' address in Coventry suggests that this watch was finished and cased in Coventry, it also suggests that it was not made by Rotherhams. If it had been made by Rotherhams the case would have one of the sponsor's marks entered on behalf of the company, which it does not. It is most likely that the movement was finished by one of the many other Coventry watchmaking companies, possibly a watchmaker working in The Butts such as Newsome & Co., who contracted Radges to make the case.
This shows how important it is to consider every aspect of a sponsor's mark, not just the initials. The exact shape of the surround, if there is one is important, as is the type face of the letters and any punctuation. These two JR marks are quite different so it is easy to spot, sometimes it is not so easy.
Back to the top of the page.
Coventry Factory Production
Rotherham Production: D. H. Bacon, Antiquarian Horology Winter 1996.
An article by D. H. Bacon, "Watch Production in English Factories" in the Winter 1996 edition of Antiquarian Horology discussed Rotherhams' output of watches. Data gathered by the author from serial numbers and case hallmark dates indicated that Rotherham restarted their numbering sequence in circa 1880. This was perhaps as a result of beginning machine made mass production of selectively interchangeable parts, when a knowledge of the select group into which a movement fell would enable spare parts to be supplied from stock.
The use of case hallmarks dates gives a general idea of the rate of production, but cannot be used to pin down when a movement was actually made. Usually cases were not held in stock for long because they were expensive, especially gold and silver cases, so capital was tied up. Machine made movements were made in large batches and some of these could be in stock for quite a while before they were required to fulfil orders, so they were kept in stock ‘bare’ and cased up as needed.
The figure here reproduced from the article shows a plot of movement serial numbers against case hallmark dates. The hallmark dates are plotted as single years, which is not correct. Date letter punches were changed part way through the year when new wardens were elected, at the end of May for the London Assay Office, the end of June for most others, so a date letter refers to parts of two calendar years. So the dates actually start about half way through the year and span a full twelve month period into the next calendar year. The drawing of a straight regression line is also misleading, because Rotherham's output would have fluctuated in response to economic conditions.
The red bar on the plot refers to the wristwatch described further down on this page which has serial number 253272. The red bar falls well below the main sequence of movement serial numbers, which suggests that the movement had been in stock for some time before it was cased up as a wristwatch. The fashion for ladies to wear wristwatches began in the 1880s and soon displaced the wearing or carrying of fob watches, so the demand for fob watch sized movements fell until the Great War created a demand for men's wristwatches. This explains why a movement that Bacon's graph (green arrow) suggests was made in about 1904 was not cased up until 1914 or 1915. The sudden surge in demand for wristwatches during the Great War caused many fob watch movements that had lain on the shelf for years to be dusted off and cased up for duty at the front on an officer's wrist.
The lowest and highest serial numbers were 13,806 and 401,197, although for some reason not explained the highest number is neither dated or plotted. Bacon calculated that the output was about 240 watches per week between 1883 and 1913, rather lower than the 100 watches per day reported in the press. This was probably a difference between a capability of making 100 watches per day and the number that were actually produced to fulfil orders.
There is a story that Rotherhams made no watches at all during the Great War. It is true that the factory did make other thing during the war, but Rotherhams said that the story that they didn't make watches during the war was put about by a competitor, almost certainly Williamsons, a rival Coventry watch manufacturer. Production of watches in Coventry continued after the war but Rotherham stopped making watches in Coventry some time before WW2, probably in the 1930s.
Bacon estimates the total output of watches at Rotherhams Coventry factory as circa 425,000.
Back to the top of the page.
Rotherham & Sons and Electa
10 August 1926 transfer of trademarks
July 1927 notice
In 1926 the Electa watch movement factory and its contents were purchased from Gallet by Rotherham and Sons. The notice reproduced here dated 10 August 1926 records the transfer of the trademark names Eureka and Electa to "Rotherham and Sons, Overseas Limited" based in London with a branch in La Chaux-de-Fonds. The notice also says "fabrication, La Chaux-de-Fonds". This implies that there was a factory, so it seems possible that Rotherham's bought the Electa factory as well as the name.
The notice reproduced here from a Swiss trade journal of July 1927 advises that the trademarks Eureka and Electa are the exclusive property of Rotherham and Sons Overseas Limited and that they will pursue judgment against anyone who uses these marks without their authorisation.
My records show that the involvement of Rotherhams with Electa goes back to before the Great War. I have seen two wristwatches with Electa movements in sterling silver cases with Birmingham Assay Office import hallmarks for 1914 to 1915 and John Rotherham's registered sponsor's mark. During the war Rotherhams were entirely taken up with the production of war materials, mainly fuses for which they gained a high reputation for their accuracy.
It seems that not only did Rotherhams cease manufacture of watches at their factory in Coventry for the duration of the war, they also stopped importing Electa watches. I have only seen two Electa wristwatches with London Assay Office import marks and John Rotherham's registered sponsor's mark, but then all of the other wristwatches with Electa movements in sterling silver cases that I have seen with hallmarks from the war years 1914 to 1918 have London Assay Office import hallmarks and the sponsor's mark A•G•R for Robert Pringle and Sons.
There is a gap in my Electa records from 1918/19 to 1924/25, but I have seen Swiss watches with Rotherham's sponsor's mark and import hallmarks for 1918/19, so it seems that they started importing Swiss watches again soon after the war finished.
My records of Electa wristwatches with Rotherham and Sons R&S sponsor's mark continue with Chester Assay Office import hallmarks for the years 1925/26 to 1926/27. These dates include watches that were imported by Rotherham and Sons in the period between the Electa factory being offered for sale or rent and the liquidation sale in 1926. It seems likely that Rotherhams rented the factory in 1923 and continued production of Electa watches until the dispersal sale, when they acquired the factory and contents.
The latest wristwatch with an Electa movement in sterling silver case that I have records for has Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks and Rotherham and Sons R&S sponsor's mark. The date letter is "i" for 1931 to 1932.
Back to the top of the page.
An English Wristwatch
Rotherham & Sons were one of the few English companies to make wristwatches. They could not compete on scale or price with American or Swiss manufacturers so these wristwatches are not seen very often. Rotherhams also imported Swiss watches so not every watch with a Rotherhams mark on it was made in England.
The images here show a wristwatch manufactured by Rotherham & Sons in Coventry. The case has London Assay Office hallmarks for a sterling silver item made in Britain with the date letter "t" for 1914 to 1915 and the R&S sponsor's mark entered by John Rotherham.
The serial number on the movement is 253272. I have added this to the graph in the Coventry Factory Production section as a red bar spanning 1914 and 1915 indicating the actual period when the case could have been hallmarked, remembering that hallmark date letters span two calendar years. The movement serial number suggests that it was made around 1906, but the red bar falls well below the line of dates drawn from case hallmarks, which suggests that the movement had been in stock for some time before it was cased up as a wristwatch.
The fashion for ladies to wear wristwatches began in the 1880s and soon displaced the wearing or carrying of fob watches, so the demand for fob watch sized movements fell until the Great War created a demand for men's wristwatches. This explains why a movement that Bacon's graph suggests was made in about 1904 was not cased up until 1914 or 1915. The sudden surge in demand for wristwatches during the Great War caused many fob watch movements that had lain on the shelf for years to be dusted off and cased up for duty at the front on an officer's wrist.
This wristwatch was undoubtedly made in response to the demands of newly commissioned British officers leaving for the front during the first year of the Great War. British Army officers were expected to purchase their own wristwatches as part of their kit, for which they were given an allowance. The dial is not luminised, a feature that quickly became a requirement during the war for watches intended for military service.
The watch case was made along traditional lines for an English lever watch. This watch is stem wound and set so, unlike key wound watches, there is no opening outer back, the single case back or bottom is rigidly fixed to the band, the middle part of the case, and does not open. The case is 34.6mm diameter excluding the lugs and crown, a good size for a man's wristwatch.
The view of the dial with the bezel open shows the traditional English method of fixing the movement to the case. At the top there is a joint above the twelve o'clock, with the two outer silver knuckles fixed to the case band and a central brass knuckle fixed to the movement bottom plate. At the bottom, below the six o'clock position, there is a catch that can be released to allow the movement to be swung out from the case, as shown in the picture of the watch opened. Even in the second half of the nineteenth century this looked old fashioned, but it didn't inconvenience the wearer.
The three quarter plate movement measures 29.25mm across the dial plate which makes it an "0" size on the Lancashire Watch gauge, or 13 lignes on the Swiss system. The mainspring is housed in a "going barrel" and drives the train directly, teeth on the outside of the barrel drive the pinion of the centre wheel. English manufacturers had gradually given up on their love affair with the fusee that made watches bulky and was almost impossible to make keyless wound.
The movement shows Rotherhams' typical high level of finish with gilded plates and cocks, polished and blued screws and bright polished steel parts. The ruby jewels are set in chatons and, in addition to the balance wheel, the escape wheel and lever pivots have cap jewels or end stones. The jewel count is not stated but is most likely 19, the 15 jewels usually found in a lever escapement movement jewelled to the third wheel, plus the extra end stones for both the lever and escape wheel.
The escapement is an English right angle lever with pointed tooth escape wheel. The English right angle lever brings the escape wheel closer to the balance staff than does a Swiss straight line lever, which is why the escape wheel is set down below the rim of the balance. The balance has a cut bimetallic rim for temperature compensation, and gold screws for timing and poising. The balance spring has a Breguet overcoil. The regulator lever has a bevelled slot at the end so that its position against the graduated scale can be read off without parallax error.
The top plate is engraved with the name of the retailer, The Goldsmiths and Silversmiths Company, 112 Regent St. London.
The view of the case shows at the top the two knuckles attached to the band, and also shows Rotherhams' peculiar design of stem winding. The short case stem has a bevel gear on its inner end. The crown is secured to the case stem by a hollow round nut with a slot that is shown in the inserted detail in the top right of the image.
When the movement is locked into the case, the bevel gear on the case stem engages with a bevel gear in the movement. This is visible in the picture of the movement between the plates, below the "smiths" part of the engraved name. Turning the crown normally winds the mainspring, there is a small olivette on the outside of the case just below the crown with a pin that is pressed in to shift the keyless work into hand setting mode.
The watchstrap buckle has Rotherham and Sons' R&S sponsor's mark. The hallmarks stamped by the London Assay Office are difficult to read because they have been double stamped with an initial shallow stamp overstamped by a second deeper set of marks. The remains of the first set of marks are arranged and spaced exactly the same as the second set of marks showing that they were made by a single combined punch that carried all three part marks, the lion, the leopard's head, and the date letter. Combined punches were also used for stamping the hallmarks in the backs of watch cases, which placed them in a regular pattern. They were pressed into the case by a manually operated fly press. I have examined the marks carefully and I am pretty sure that the date letter is the "n" for 1908 to 1909.
Copyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2019 all rights reserved. This page updated February 2019. W3CMVS.