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Gallet and Electa

Copyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2022 all rights reserved.

Gallet trace their history back to one Humbertus Gallet, who in 1466 moved from Bourg-en-Bresse in France to Geneva and was a builder of tower clocks. His descendants in Geneva were joined some 220 years later in 1685 by other members of the Gallet family, who were recorded as goldsmiths and watchmakers.

The Gallet watchmaking company was founded in 1826 in La Chaux-de-Fonds by Julien Gallet (1806 - 1849). This company was taken over in 1883 by Julien's two sons, Léon (1832 - 1899) and Lucien (1834 - 1879). Léon Gallet was a significant figure in the Freemasons, becoming a Grand Master. When he died in 1899 he bequeathed a large sum, part of which was used to set up the Musée international d'horlogerie in La Chaux-de-Fonds.

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Electa catalogue 1914
Electa catalogue 1914: Click image to enlarge.
Copyright © The Gallet Group.
Electa Wristwatch

Electa Movement: Click image to enlarge.

A number of my trench watches have the 13 ligne movement shown here. I first identified as being an Electa movement on the basis of the name Electa on the dial of the first watch I collected which had this movement. It turns out that I was pretty lucky, very few watches with this movement have a name on the dial.

This attribution of the movement was confirmed to me by David R. Laurence, Managing Director of The Gallet Group, Inc. as an Electa movement, and David kindly supplied the page scanned from a 1914 Electa catalogue shown here. A 13 ligne movement is an 0 or zero size in the American terminology of the catalogue; 12, 16 and 18 size movements were used for pocket watches.

Electa is an important figure in Freemason tradition, being the anonymous “chosen lady” to whom the Apostle John's second letter is addressed.

The name Electa was registered as a trademark for watches and other items of horology on 8 March 1900 by the Societe d'Horlogerie de Genève, as shown in the notice of record reproduced below. This appears to be the first use of the name Electa in a horological context.

The notice says that the Societe d'Horlogerie de Genève is “succursale de la maison de Paris”, which translates literally as a branch of the house of Paris. The meaning of this is not clear. Neither of the names, Geneva Watchmaking Society or House of Paris, stand out as distinct or unique, which makes researching them difficult.

1903 Electa Advert
Advertisement from 1903: Click image to enlarge
Registration of Electa name in 1900
Registration of Electa name in 1900: Click image to enlarge

The advertisement from 1903 says that the Société d'Horlogerie Electa was formerly the Societe d'Horlogerie de Genève. On 12 July 1902, the Societe d'Horlogerie de Genève had been converted into a Swiss public limited company under the name Societe d'horlogerie Electa with its headquarters in La Chaux-de-Fonds and whose purpose was the manufacture and sale of watches. The share capital was two hundred and forty thousand francs (fr. 240,000) divided into 2,400 bearer shares of 100 francs. The company was to be represented by a director appointed by the board of directors; this director is Jules Grumbach from Morteau. The company office was at 17 Rue du Ravin, La Chaux-de-Fonds.

Some accounts say that Gallet acquired Electa in 1855 by taking over a firm called Grumbach & Co, which produced watches with the brand name Electa. But the Grumbach Company didn't disappear in 1855, Pritchard shows an advert by Grumbach from 1920, and the Electa name was not owned by Grumbach & Co. Another version of the story is that rather than acquiring the company, Gallet purchased a factory building from Grumbach that was adjacent to the Gallet factory in La Chaux-de-Fonds to accommodate increasing Gallet production. However, it could be simply that the name of the director appointed to represent Electa, Jules Grumbach, has got mixed up with a watchmaking compny of the same name but not connected to Electa.

The relationship between Gallet and Electa is equally difficult to understand. From Gallet factory records, it appears that a working relationship between the Gallet company and Société d'horlogerie Electa existed as far back as the 1880's, which is long before the company was founded in 1902. Gallet sales records are said to show delivery of movements and fully finished watches from Société d'horlogerie Electa to Gallet's New York offices and T. Eaton's Canada department store beginning in 1890's.

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Gallet Acquire Electa

1918 Electa Advert
1918 Electa Advert.
Copyright © The Gallet Group
1907 transfer notice

Whatever the relationship between Gallet and Electa before, the notice shown here from the February 1907 edition of La Féderation Horlogere Suisse shows the rights to a design registered on 1 November 1906 being transferred from "Société d'horlogerie Electa" to "Gallet & Co., Fabrique d'horlogerie Electa".

This would appear to correspond with an entry in the Gallet timeline which says that in 1906 "The company name "Gallet & Cie, Fabrique d'horlogerie Electa" is registered to reinforce Gallet's ownership and control of the Electa brand. Under the Electa name, Gallet produces its highest quality timepieces." These two items suggest to me that Société d'horlogerie Electa was still an independent company until 1 November 1906, and that Gallet actually acquired or formally merged with Société d'horlogerie Electa after this date, although it appears that there was pre-existing manufacturing and production unity between the two entities.

In Swiss Timepiece Makers, 1775-1975 Kathleen Pritchard says that "A new name was registered for [Gallet & Cie] in 1907 - Gallet & Cie, Fabrique Electa. Electa marks were transferred from the SOCIETE D'HORLOGERIE DE GENEVE, Geneva, and from its successor, SOCIETE D'HORLOGERIE ELECTA, La Chaux de Fonds. In 1913 the name was changed slightly to FABRIQUE D'HORLOGERIE ELECTA. GALLET & CIE SA.

I am particularly interested in Borgel watches, that is watches with a Borgel screw case. Many Borgel watches, and also watches in ordinary cases with hinged backs,from the time of the Great War are fitted with the Electa movement illustrated above, or in versions of this movement, some with higher jewel counts, with jewels set in chatons and/or with centre seconds. You can see a selection of these movements illustrated on my Movements page.

The Great War at first required, and ultimately legitimised, men's wristwatches. The standard timepieces issued to officers were still pocket watches, but these were impractical to use in the cramped conditions of the trenches and in the open cockpits of early aircraft. Many officers soon purchased their own wristwatches; hence, these watches are often referred to as "officer's" watches, as well as "trench" watches because of their use in the trenches. The take up of wristwatches among military men during the Great War (1914 - 1918) was rapid. A book published during the war in 1916, "Knowledge for War: Every Officer's Handbook for the Front" included a list of items required in an officer's kit. The first item on the list, ahead of such otherwise indispensable items such as "Revolver" and "Field glasses" was "Luminous wristwatch with unbreakable glass".

The advertisement shown here, from the 1918 edition of the Indicateur Davoine, was provided to me by David R. Laurence, Managing Director of The Gallet Group, Inc., and shows a cavalry officer inspecting his "Electa" wristwatch. Whether it was a Borgel watch cannot be determined from the picture, but many Electa watches were cased in Borgel cases and this advertisement is a clear indication of why these watches are often called "officer's watches."

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First Liquidation

1914 notice
1914 notice

The notice of "Radiations" published in the 1914 edition of La Fédération Horlogère Suisse, which in this context means something like "Striking off", shows Gallet & Co., Fabrique d'horlogerie Electa, in liquidation.

It appears that the main Gallet company decided to close down the Electa factory and the easiest way to do this was to put this subsidiary business into liquidation and the hands of administrators. However, it appears that production of Electa watches continued, most likely under the administration of liquidators who were trying to find a buyer for the business as a “going concern”. It is interesting that the earliest Electa wristwatches that I have seen, imported by Rotherhams of Coventry, date from 1914.

And then out of the blue the great upsurge in demand for wristwatches which accompanied the Great War (WW1) filled the order books of Electa, along with many other manufacturers, for the next four or more years. It appears that Gallet regained some role in the administration of the company.

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Second Liquidation

1926 notice
1926 auction notice
1923 notice
1923 advert for sale or rent

In the depression that followed the Great War, orders decreased or stopped. The company appears to have continued for a short while, probably still under the administration of the liquidators. However, in the early 1920s a post war depression hit Swiss exports hard. Trade statistics show that the value of Swiss watch and clock exports in the first quarter of 1921 were Fr. 44,791,252, significantly down from the first quarter of 1920 when the total was Fr. 78,832,970: a decrease of 43%.

Again it was decided that Electa operation was not viable. The 1923 advert shows that the Electa factory is offered for sale or to rent complete, including a machine shop suitable for making watches, ébauches or other parts.

It would appear that this offer did not resolve the problems because the 1926 auction notice advises of the dispersal sale, i.e. sale in parts rather than as a whole, of the Electa factory, land, and contents.

It appears that the Electa company was merged into the Gallet company in La Chaux-de-Fonds in 1906 and the company rebranded as "Gallet & Co., Fabrique d'horlogerie Electa". This new company was very successful in the run up to and during the Great War, but during the post war slump it suffered from reduced orders and got into financial difficulties. A new Gallet business, isolated sufficiently from Gallet & Co., Fabrique d'horlogerie Electa, was formed so that the liquidation of that branch did not affect the main business. Gallet could have acquired the trademark of Electa from the liquidators if they wished to carry on using it, although the last mention of Electa in the timeline is 1915 and says "Gallet supplies hand held and cockpit mounted timers to the British Air Force during WW I. Movements are produced in Gallet's Electa workshop and marked with the Electa name."

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Electa and J. S. Clarke & Co. Ltd.

In the years 1923 and 1924 the company of J. S. Clarke & Co. Ltd., successors to Eugene Gerber & Co. Ltd., advertised in the Horological Journal that they were the importers of Electa watches. It is difficult to work out what went on here, but it seems likely that the auction sale of Electa failed and the receivers kept the factory going to give the staff employment and cover the bills with a view to selling it as a going concern.

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Rotherham & Sons and Electa

1926 notice
10 August 1926 transfer of trademarks
1927 notice
July 1927 notice

In 1926 the Electa watch movement factory and its contents were purchased from Gallet by Rotherham and Sons after the Electa business was

The notice reproduced here dated 10 August 1926 records the transfer of the trademark names Eureka and Electa to "Rotherham and Sons, Overseas Limited" based in London with a branch in La Chaux-de-Fonds. The notice also says "fabrication, La Chaux-de-Fonds". This implies that there was a factory, so it seems that Rotherham's bought the Electa factory as well as the trademark names.

The second notice reproduced here, from a Swiss trade journal of July 1927, warns that the trademarks Eureka and Electa are the exclusive property of Rotherham and Sons Overseas Limited and that they will pursue judgment against anyone who uses these marks without their authorisation.

My records show that the involvement of Rotherhams with Electa goes back to before the Great War. I have seen wristwatches from the pre-war period with Electa movements in sterling silver cases with Birmingham Assay Office import hallmarks carrying John Rotherham's registered JR sponsor's mark. This relationship must have convinced Rotherhams about the quality of Electa watches.

Electa wristwatches from the war years of 1914 to 1918 have London Assay Office import hallmarks and the sponsor's mark A•G•R for Robert Pringle & Sons.

It seems that not only did Rotherhams cease or sharply curtail manufacture of watches at their factory in Coventry for the duration of the war, they also stopped importing Electa watches. During the war Rotherhams were heavily involved with the production of war materials, mainly fuses for which they gained a high reputation for their accuracy, and it appears that they gave up the import of Electa watches to concentrate on this.

There is a gap in my Electa records from 1918/19 to 1924/25. During 1923 and 1924 J. S. Clarke & Co. Ltd. advertised that they were the importers of Electa watches, but no watches imported by them have been seen.

After 1924 Electa data continues with watches having cases with Rotherham and Sons R&S sponsor's mark and Chester Assay Office import hallmarks for the years 1925/26 to 1926/27. These dates include watches imported by Rotherham and Sons in the period between the Electa factory being offered for sale or rent and the liquidation sale in 1926. It seems likely that Rotherhams rented the factory in 1923 and continued production of Electa watches until the dispersal sale, when they acquired the factory and contents.

The latest wristwatch with an Electa movement in sterling silver case that I have records for has Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks and Rotherham and Sons R&S sponsor's mark. The date letter is "i" for 1931 to 1932.

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Gallet "Electa" Wristwatch Movements

Electa 17 Jewels with Reed's whiplash regulator. Click image to enlarge

This is the movement I have found most frequently in my collection of Borgel wristwatches. Although there is no maker's mark anywhere on the movement I first identified it as an Electa movement from the name "Electa" which appears on the dial of one of the first watches I collected with this movement. Electa was a division of Gallet.

Electa movement
Electa Savonnette Movement 15 Jewels. Click image to enlarge

The first movement shown here is a savonnette layout with the small seconds on the dial at 6 o'clock. It has 15 jewels, a split bi-metallic temperature compensated balance and Breguet overcoil balance spring.

In addition to the 15 jewel type, there was also a higher grade 17 jewel version with the jewels set in chatons, with Reed's whiplash regulator adjuster with swan neck spring for precise adjustment of the regulator lever. The swan neck springs of the Reed adjuster of these movements are often broken. I am planning to make some of these swan neck springs to replace the ones that are missing from my movements - I don't expect that it will be a quick or easy exercise. . . .

I also have an indirect centre seconds version of this movement, with the seconds hand driven off the arbor of the third wheel by multiplier gearing. This is the bottom picture to the right. A full explanation of the working of the centre seconds of this watch is given on the Watch Movements page.

This movement was also available with "negative set" or "American system" keyless mechanism.

Electa catalogue 1914
Electa catalogue 1914 Copyright © The Gallet Group. Click image to enlarge.
Electa Centre Seconds. Click image to enlarge.
Electa Negative Set
Electa Negative Set

When a negative set mechanism is present a setting lever screw, which normally releases the stem, is not fitted, as you can see in the picture to the left. To remove the movement from the case, there is no need to undo the setting lever screw as you would do for a positive set movement, just pull the crown out to the hand set position and the movement can be removed from the case by tilting it slightly.

Electa Catalogue 1914

Confirmation that these are indeed Electa movements was provided to me by David R. Laurence, Managing Director of The Gallet Group, Inc. who kindly provided me with the scan of a page from an Electa catalogue dated 1914, you can see some of the Electa movements I have pictured. It's interesting that even the 7 jewel basic version had a Bréguet balance spring and temperature compensated balance. The red rubies seem to be rather expensive, presumably they were natural gem stones rather than synthetic. You can read more about Electa and Gallet on my Gallet and Electa page.

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Gallet "Electa" Pocket Watch Movements

Electa pocket watch movement
Electa Lépine pocket watch movement. Click image to enlarge

The picture to the left shows an Electa movement from a Borgel pocket watch. It is an open face pocket watch with the pendant at 12 o'clock so the movement is a Lépine layout. The fourth wheel arbor, which carries the seconds hand, is pivoted in the cock at the bottom of the picture, the one with "17 jewels" written on it. This is directly in line with the winding stem, which enters the movement at the top.

Electa Savonnette Movement
Electa Savonnette Movement
Click image to enlarge

It is a high quality movement, jewelled to the centre with 17 jewels, four set in chatons as you can see in the picture. It has a Reed's whiplash regulator adjuster with swan neck spring for precise adjustment of the regulator lever.

The bridges and cocks are decorated with stripes or bands of decoration called Côtes de Genève, and you will notice that the stripes line up across all the bridges and cocks. I often wonder exactly how they did this, the stripes must have been made with all the cocks and bridges assembled on the bottom plate before the parts were nickel plated.

The picture to the right shows a savonnette version of this movement. The similarity between the two movements is striking although they are quite different layouts. The barrel bridge is completely different because the crown wheel and ratchet wheels are transposed. Close examination shows that this results in the centre bridge being completely different too, although at first sight it looks very similar.

The similarities between the two movements have allowed economies in manufacture to be made. The layout and positioning of the train wheels is identical in the two movements, and the fourth wheel cock, the escape wheel cock and the balance cock are all identical. The use of an identical layout for the train means that the wheels and arbors in the two different styles of movement are the same.

If you have any comments or questions, please don't hesitate to to get in touch via my Contact Me page.

Copyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2022 all rights reserved. This page updated March 2022. W3CMVS. Back to the top of the page.