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Swiss Poinçons de Maître

Copyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2021 all rights reserved.

NB: Bernd Riemann has discovered that the data in the tables supplied by the Central Office for Precious Metals Control, originally used to create the tables on this page, tell only part of the story, the very last part. The data was from a readout of the database in 2007. Between 1934 and 2007 many changes took place which are not documented: companies changed names, changed ownership, and sometimes the registration numbers were even reused! This makes the data in the 2007 tables unreliable. Bernd has researched all of these changes and has already made corrections to the tables; PdM2 to 6 are finished and Bernd is now working on updating and verifying PdM1.

In Switzerland in the 1920s, a system of marks called Poinçons de Maître, literally the “Punch of the Master”, was introduced to identify watch case manufacturers. There were two different types of Poinçon de Maître required for watch cases; one type was used on cases made of precious metal, principally gold, the other was used on cases plated with gold. Both systems were introduced in the 1920s.

Watch manufacturers didn't usually want the name of the case maker appearing in the back of their watches, because the case maker was usually a separate company who supplied many different watch manufacturers with cases. For cases made of precious metal a system of marks and code numbers was devised by the association of watch case manufacturers, with different symbols representing the different case making regions of Switzerland, principally Geneva and the Neuchâtel and Jura regions. This type of mark is called a “Collective Responsibility Mark” because the same mark was used by all the members of the association within the region, with a distinguishing number to identify which member.

Poinçons de Maître on precious metal cases are usually seen only in gold, platinum and palladium cases. Although provision was made by the Swiss watch case makers association for silver cases to be marked, these are only seen occasionally and were evidently not applied rigorously.

A Federal Law on the Control of Trade in Precious Metals and Precious Metal Works of 20 June 1933, came into force on 1 July 1934 and required that Poinçons de Maître were registered with the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern. The only information the central database now cotains have is from 2007. However, the 2007 lists have lots of gaps in the sequences of numbers. This is because there were a lot of changes that are not recorded in the 2007 lists. This is particularly so for the mark of a hammer with handle. If you find any one of the marks with number that is not listed, please let me know.

Note that the names in the lists below are the latest ones recorded in the database of the Central Office for Precious Metals Control. It is known that some of these marks were transferred to new names when companies changed ownership, sometimes many times. Swiss law required that any change in ownership of a company had to be registered, which meant that company names changed when old owners retired and younger family members or relatives took over, even if the factory and workforce remained identical. In order to know what name a company was operating under when it made a particular case one needs to know the sequence of ownership of the company and the exact date when the case was made, which unfortunately is not recorded by either the Poinçons de Maître or Swiss hallmarks.

The data on the use of Poinçon de Maître No. 2, the hammer with handle, was gathered in an attempt to understand what happened to the mark before 1934, but it also indicates when the system of Poinçons de Maître was introduced in the mid 1920s. It would be interesting to extend this to the other Poinçons de Maître, so if you have a watch case with any Poinçon de Maître that can be positively dated, through British hallmarks or any other means, to 1925 or earlier, please let me know.

Poinçons de Maître on Precious Metal

A system of striking Poinçons de Maître (PdM) on watch cases made of precious metal in order to provide traceability back to the case maker was introduced in Switzerland in the mid 1920s.

I have seen a nine carat gold watch case with London import hallmarks for 1924 to 1925 which does not have a Poinçon de Maître, and a number of gold cases that were hallmarked in London and Glasgow in 1925 or 1926 which do have Swiss Poinçons de Maître. This suggests that the PdM system for watch cases made of precious metal must have begun around 1925. It has now been discovered that the first Poinçon de Maître mark was registered in 1926.

There are gaps in the 2007 list, most of them probably due to the registered company going out of business between the origin of the systems and the centralisation in 1934. Some of these gaps are quite large, for instance the list of Poinçons de Maître No. 1, the hammer head, contains only three numbers below 100, numbers 2, 11 and 26. This implies that the other 97 of the first 100 registrants had ceased trading by 1934.

The collective responsibility mark of Poinçons de Maître No. 2, the hammer with handle, is even more mysterious. In the 1934 list there are only two entries, 115 and 160. The highest number that has been reported to me with a hammer with handle mark is 321. This implies that perhaps 319 companies on the original list had ceased trading by 1934. I don't think that was actually what happened, I think there was a reorganisation of the system that left the hammer with handle mark redundant and unused.

Observations of a Poinçon de Maître hammer head with a number known to have been registered to C.R. Spillmann SA, and the same registration number on a hammer with handle on cases made by Spillmann for Rolex, gives a clue about what happened to the hammer with handle mark; it was phased out after 1926 and the hammer head took over. These observations are discussed in the section at PdM 2 No. 136: C.R. Spillmann SA.

Poinçons de Maître on Gold Plated Items


Bréguet-Bréting Advertisement with PdM : April 1922

La Fédération Horlogère Suisse, 5 May 1926.

Poinçons de Maître were also required for gold plated watch cases and other gold plated items, which had to meet certain requirements concerning the thickness and durability of the gold plate.

The extract from La Fédération Horlogère Suisse from May 1926 shown here describes how Poinçons de Maître are registered (déposé) at the bureau de contrôle (assay office) of the canton or arrondissement where the manufacturer is located. The extract also says that the bureau de contrôle is responsible for the guarantee marks that are struck on the work that show the “dureé du plaqué” i.e. the duration or expected lifetime of plating. This is for gold filled or gold plated cases.

The earliest mention of a Poinçon de Maître on plated cases that I have seen to date is in the advert by Bréguet-Bréting from April 1922. The round topped shield containing the letters "J.B.B" is clearly identified as a Poinçon de Maître. The use of a Poinçon de Maître on gold plated cases ties in with the statement in the 1926 notice above about the mark guaranteeing the duration of the plating.

The 1934 Precious Metals Act

The Swiss Federal Law on the Control of Trade in Precious Metals and Precious Metal Works that was decreed on 20 June 1933 came into force on 1 July 1934 required that all case maker's Poinçons de Maître were filed with the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern, pursuant to Article 59 of the Act.

The collective responsibility marks shown in the section and tables below were registered by the Fédération Suisse des Associations de Fabricants de Boîtes de Montres (Swiss Federation of Associations of Watch Cases Producers, or F.B. for short). The Federation changed its name in 1966 to called Union Suisse des Fabricants de Boites de Montre (USFB) (Swiss Union of Watch Cases Manufacturers). Later this was changed to the Union Suisse pour l'Habillage de la Montre (USH) (Swiss Union for Watch Casing). In 2006 it took the name USH-APIC, Union Suisse pour l'Habillage de la Montre et Association Patronale Suisse des Industries Microtechniques (Swiss Union for Watch Casing and Employers' Association of Industries Microtechnologies) and is now known as "apiah" (Association patronale des industries de l'Arc-horloger). It is based in La Chaux-de-Fonds.

Responsibility Marks

The system of Poinçons de Maître used used on precious metal cases had different pictographic symbols to represent the different case making regions of Switzerland, principally Geneva and the Neuchâtel and Jura regions. The marks are called “collective responsibility” marks because each one was used by more than one member of the association. However, so that the individual members could be identified, each was allocated a registration number which they stamped as part of the the mark. This gave traceability back to the specific manufacturer of a watch case as required by law.

These responsibility marks are shown in the table below. They are usually very small and quite difficult to see, and are mainly seen on gold, platinum or palladium cases., although they do very occasionally turn up one silver cases, which No.3 and No. 4 were specifically intended for. Responsibility marks were not required by law on silver cases so their use was voluntary.

When stamped the XXX shown in the marks are replaced with a number that indicates the maker of the case. If you do find one in your watch case, then it is a simple matter to consult the tables of registered marks further down on this page and see who was the case maker. However, note that some company names changed over time and the one listed might not have been the name in use when a particular case was made.

When stamped the XXX shown in the marks are replaced by a number that indicates the maker.
Click on a picture of a mark, or a link in the Number or Name column, to jump to the list of registrants for each mark.

NumberNameDescription
No. 1Hammer Head, or Hammer without HandleFor gold, platinum and palladium watch cases made in Switzerland outside Geneva.
No. 2Hammer with HandleUsage not recorded: see The Hammer with Handle Mystery.
No. 3Marquee of Fédération des Fabricants de Boîtes Argent (FFBA)For silver watch cases made in the cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura.
No. 4Arbalète or CrossbowFor silver watch cases made in the cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura.
No. 5Key of GenevaFor gold, platinum and palladium watch cases of thickness 0.3mm or greater made in Geneva.
No. 6ShieldFor gold, platinum and palladium watch cases of thickness less than 0.3mm made in Geneva.

The system and numbering pre-dates 1934, but the 1934 list is the only one we have available today and it has gaps in it, which must be because the original registrant no longer existed when the 1934 list was compiled. So it is possible to find these Collective Responsibility marks in watch cases that are earlier than 1934, and if the registrant is in the 1934 list, all well and good, but the gaps in the 1934 list show where earlier registrants had gone out of business before the list was compiled.

Lists of the marks and registration numbers, together with the names of the watch case makers who the marks were registered to, can be found further down on this page. You can click on the picture of the mark or the live links in the table above to jump straight to the part of the list that you want to see.

Missing Numbers

In addition to the large number of numbers missing from PdM number 2, the hammer with handle which I discuss in the "hammer with handle" mystery below, each of the lists has some numbers missing. If you have or see a watch case with one of the missing numbers, please let me know via my Contact Me page.

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The "Hammer With Handle" Mystery


Hammer with Handle No. 180: Click to Enlarge.

The hammer with handle mark is rather interesting because there are only two numbers listed in the 1934 list, No. 115 Favre & Perret SA, and No 160 Joseph Erard SA. This seems to imply that there must have been a large number of companies with this mark at one time, but that they had all stopped using this mark before 1934. It seems unlikely that such a large number of companies would have gone out of business in 10 years and therefore I suspect that they all simply stopped using the mark, but I don't know why.

An official description of the meaning and use of each of the marks that was supplied to me in 2011 by USH-APIC contains no reference to mark No. 2, the hammer with handle. Unfortunately this description is not dated.

The one thing that can be said for sure is that if your watch has a hammer with handle mark and the number on the hammer head is not either 115 or 160 then it must have been made between when the Poinçon de Maître system began, circa 1925, and 1934.

I have a Stauffer & Co. watch with the Hammer with Handle mark shown to the right. The watch case is 9 carat gold and has Glasgow import hallmarks for 1926 / 1927, further evidence that the Poinçon de Maître registration system was in use before 1934. As you can see it has a number 180 on the hammer head, but there is no record in the 1934 list of a company using this symbol with the number 180, so the maker of this case must have gone out of business between 1926 / 27 when this case was made and 1934 when the central list was compiled.

I asked USH-APIC and the Swiss Central Office for Precious Metal Control about this, but they have no records prior to 1934. If the numbers were issued consecutively starting with 1, like for the other marks, there may have been up to 180 companies, and possibly more, using the hammer with handle mark registered with the Cantonal Authorities outside Geneva in the mid 1920s when the Poinçon de Maître registration system was introduced.


Hammer with Handle No. 321, thanks to Glenn.

If you have an example of a Poinçon de Maître of the hammer with handle that is not either 115 or 160, please let me know so that I can add the "unknown" manufacturers to the list. One day this might lead to something.

A correspondent sent me details of a lady's wristwatch with an 18K 0,750 gold case with Swiss head of Helvetia carrying the hammer with handle mark and the registration number 321 as shown in the second picture here.

The watch movement is marked Dueber Hampden Watch co, Swiss 2 Adj. 15 Jewel, believed to be manufactured by the Venus Watch Co. of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, dating approximately to the 1920s.

The registration number 321 is is far higher than any previous registration number that I had seen. I now think it is more likely that a decision was taken some time in the 1920s or early 1930s to stop using the hammer with handle mark, rather than the unlikely scenario of over 300 separate case manufacturers all going out of business in the space of a few years.

Read Across

The discovery that the registration number 136 was registered to C.R. Spillmann SA for both PdM1, the hammer head, and PdM2, the hammer with handle, suggests that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list.

Does this mean that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list? Almost for certain: yes. Manufacture Favre & Perret SA appears in both lists with registration number 115. Joseph Erard SA, the second of the only two numbers listed in the 2007 hammer with handle list with registration number 160 is an error. The same name is listed in the hammer head list with registration number 161, so it was long thought that there might not be a direct read across. However, number 160 is missing from the hammer head list, and as latest research brought to light, the PdM2 number 160 was in fact registered to Marc Erard, not to his relative called Joseph, so that there now is no point against a read across. PdM1 No. 161 = Joseph Erard, PdM2 No. 160 = Marc Erard.

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Poinçon de Maître No.1 : Hammer Head

Where the date of Enregistrement is 21.07.1934, which a lot of them are, this refers to the date when the cantonal records were centralised at the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern. It is not the date at which the mark was first used. The system of Poinçons de Maître was introduced in the mid 1920s and a mark recorded as “Enregistrement 21.07.1934” was almost certainly not first used on that date. A mark with this date was most likely used earlier, and could have been used from the very start of the system in the 1920s.

Where a number is missing from the table, the registrant of that number must have gone out of business some time after the system was first used at cantonal level and before the data was centralised in 1934. At the moment we have no way to know who that company was.

Where the date of "Radiation" or striking off is blank, the company was still in existence when this data was compiled in September 2007.

"Marteau sans manche" : Hammer without handle, or hammer head. For gold and platinum watch cases made in Switzerland outside Geneva.

Why do some of the companies have addresses in Geneva? Probably that was their headquarters, and they also had a factory outside Geneva.

No.Nom de l'utilisateurLieuEnregistrementRadiation
2Baumgartner, Fritz, S. A. Genève11.07.1934
Fritz Baumgartner Genève16.02.1935
F. Baumgartner Genève28.12.194005.11.1958
11Taubert & Fils Genève11.07.1934
Taubert Frères S.A. Genève05.06.1939
Taubert Frères Genève16.04.195105.11.1958
26Ponti, Gennari & Cie Genève11.07.193405.11.1958
100Union Suisse des fabricants de boîtes de montres (USFB) Biel/Bienne18.08.1969
Union Suisse pour l’Habillage de la Montre (USH) La Chaux-de-Fonds03.01.1990
apiah, Association patronale des industries de l'Arc-horloger La Chaux-de-Fonds15.05.2013
101Junod Frères & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193412.09.1935
102Amez-Droz & Cie., Boîtes de montres Zéma La-Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Jean Born, succ(esseur de Amez-Droz & Cie.) Tramelan24.11.195931.08.1966
103Baumann, Benguerel & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Baumann & Benguerel La Chaux-de-Fonds22.01.1942
Jaquet & Etevenard La Chaux-de-Fonds12.06.1957
A. Jaquet La Chaux-de-Fonds06.10.1972
Pro-Boîtes SA La Chaux-de-Fonds10.05.197707.02.1995
104A. Beck & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193420.04.1937
Beck & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds22.01.1942
Raoul Grimm La Chaux-de-Fonds09.03.1949
Jean Grimm La Chaux-de-Fonds11.06.1955
Cristalor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds02.03.1970
CEC SA, Manufacture Cristalor La Chaux-de-Fonds04.09.199128.02.2000
105Les Fils de Jules Blum La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193416.05.1974
106Würsten & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Louis Wursten fils La Chaux-de-Fonds28.04.193627.06.1941
107François Cattin La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Mme H. Cattin, Successeur de François Cattin La Chaux-de-Fonds19.12.194513.03.1952
108Maurice Challandes La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Fabrique de boîtes de montres or Roger Parel SA La Chaux-de-Fonds19.12.1945
Fabrique de boîtes de montres or Roger Parel SA St-Imier28.06.1946
Jacques Beiner St-Imier21.07.196205.01.1984
109Châtelain, Sandoz & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Châtelain & Witz, fabrique Oréade La Chaux-de-Fonds20.08.1956
Charles Witz, fabrique Oréade La Chaux-de-Fonds31.01.1961
OREADE, Girardin & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds23.10.1969
Oréade, Manufacture de Boîtes SA La Chaux-de-Fonds07.02.1995
112G. & C. Ducommun S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193428.12.1940
115A. & M. Favre & Perret La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Favre & Perret La Chaux-de-Fonds02.12.1960
Favre & Perret SA La Chaux-de-Fonds22.06.1966
Manufacture Favre & Perret SA La Crét-du-Locle10.09.2004
Montres Breguet SA L'Abbaye30.11.2011
116Flückiger & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds19.02.193713.03.1952
117Gunther & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Gunther & Co SA La Chaux-de-Fonds17.08.1937
Guillod Gunther SA La Chaux-de-Fonds03.03.1972
119Gindraux & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Gindraux SA La Chaux-de-Fonds15.10.197030.08.1972
121Guillod & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Guillod Gunther SA La Chaux-de-Fonds03.03.1972
122Alcide Guyot La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Alcide Guyot & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds27.06.1949
Guyot & Cie (SA) La Chaux-de-Fonds30.11.1965
Oreade, Manufacture de boîtes SA La Chaux-de-Fonds11.03.2004
123Ferrier & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Albert Ferrier La Chaux-de-Fonds19.23.1942
Albert Ferrier SA La Chaux-de-Fonds16.12.1944
Pfenninger & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds28.06.194626.06.1980
124Fils de Georges Ducommun La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Paul Ducommun SA La Chaux-de-Fonds20.12.1972
Cristalor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds21.04.198930.04.1993
126Jean Humbert & Co. S.A. La-Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Bräuchi & Humbert SA. La-Chaux-de-Fonds13.02.1979
Orac SA, André Bräuchi La-Chaux-de-Fonds07.01.198119.07.2011
127G. Schläppi & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
G. Schläppi & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds28.06.1946
Edmor S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds24.12.195428.03.1983
G. Balet SA La Chaux-de-Fonds24.06.198309.09.1992
128Jung & Fils La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Jung & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds13.03.195229.01.1966
129Junod & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Junod & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds03.04.1989
JSG SA La Chaux-de-Fonds17.11.199902.11.2009
130Junod & Fils La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193427.06.1941
132Monnier & Co La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Eric Monnier & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds22.03.199010.03.1992
135Orixa SA La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193429.06.1940
136C.R. Spillmann & Co. SA La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193405.04.1988
137Paul Voumard La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193427.06.1941
140B. & C. Dubois Le Locle11.07.193409.12.1947
141Gabus Frères Le Locle11.07.1934
Gabus Frères, Usine Safir S.A. Le Locle29.06.1940
Gabus Frères, Oracier SA Le Locle16.05.197426.06.1980
142Envers S.A. Le Locle11.07.193405.06.1939
143Ed. & Ch. Nardin Le Locle11.07.1934
Nardin & Cie Le Locle03.08.1957
Pierre-A. Nardin Le Locle02.12.1960
Pierre-Antoine Nardin & Cie Le Locle02.04.1969
Classicor SA Le Locle17.08.1978
Classicor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds28.03.198310.03.1992
147Kohli & Hess Tramalan11.07.1934
Charles Kohli Tramalan12.09.193515.01.1957
148Vuilliomenet & Co Tramelan/Bienne11.07.1934
Vuilliomenet & Cie S.A. Tramelan/Bienne06.02.193605.07.1943
149Wyss & Co Tramelan11.07.193415.05.1975
150Ernst Böhlen Grenchen11.07.193415.01.1957
151Hermann Heggendorn Grenchen11.07.1934
Hermann Heggendorn AG Grenchen19.12.194530.11.2011
152Jacob Leuenberger Grenchen11.07.1934
Jacob Leuenberger & Cie Grenchen12.09.1935
Jacob Leuenberger SA Grenchen14.11.1955
Jean Curty SA Grenchen29.06.1979
Jean Curty SA La Chaux-de-Fonds01.03.198226.01.1984
156Helbein Frères & Co. Genève11.07.193421.12.1935
158César Arnoux Le Noirmont11.07.1934
César Arnoux S.A. Le Noirmont24.11.1959
Jean Arnoux Le Noirmont13.03.198530.11.2011
161Joseph Erard Le Noirmont11.07.1934
Les fils de Joseph Erard Soc.à.r.l. Le Noirmont02.07.1945
Joseph Erard SA Le Noirmont18.02.2002
163A.C. Miserez Saignelégier11.07.193430.06.1936
A.C. Miserez S.A. Saignelégier04.04.1948
Alphonse Miserez Saignelégier03.08.1957
Etablissements Miserez-Sanglard SA Saignelégier15.10.1970
Alphonse Miserez SA Saignelégier17.01.1978
Miserez SA Saignelégier08.01.1991
BGM Miserez SA Saignelégier01.05.200130.11.2011
166Henri Jeanneret Le Locle11.07.193415.01.1957
167Carnal & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Carnal & Cie. SA La Chaux-de-Fonds29.04.196631.12.1976
168A. Bähler & fils Fleurier11.07.193417.09.1936
170Charles Dubois & Cie Le Locle25.11.1947
Cédex, Charles Dubois SA Le Locle16.05.197416.06.1982
171Bernard Dubois & Cie Le Locle25.11.1947
Bernard Dubois Le Locle02.12.1960
Bernard Dubois SA Le Locle28.03.198320.01.1987
172"Novelor" Monnier & Voucher La Chaux-de-Fonds21.12.1950
Novelor, Mechler La Chaux-de-Fonds14.11.1955
Novelor, Jean-Pierre Dubois La Chaux-de-Fonds11.04.196805.08.1987
173Jean-Pierre Perrin & Maurice Grandjean Le Locle16.08.1952
"Classicor", Jean-Pierre Perrin Le Locle20.08.1956
"Classicor", Pierre-Antoine Nardin Le Locle10.07.1965
"Classicor", Pierre-Antoine Nardin & Cie Le Locle02.04.1969
Pierre-Antoine Nardin & Cie Le Locle21.03.197017.08.1978
174Boîtes de montres "Huguenin S.A." Le Locle20.05.195814.10.1977
175Max Fuchs Genève01.11.1961
Max Fuchs SA Genève18.06.198121.02.1996
176Boites de montres "Bielna S.A." Biel/Bienne23.02.196209.09.1992
177Gérard Queloz Saignelégier13.03.196229.01.1966
178Pernador SA St-Imier13.04.196218.12.1969
179La Centrale S.A. Biel/Bienne26.03.196215.02.1978
180U. Paratte fils, s.á r.l. Le Noirmont08.06.196216.05.1970
181Gigon S.A. Le Noirmont11.07.1962
Les Fils de A. Bouille Les Bois20.12.1972
Fabrique de boîtes P. Etienne SA Les Bois02.06.199209.03.1999
183Erwin Piquerez SA Bassecourt10.05.1963
Piquerez-Bourquard SA Bassecourt13.03.1985
E. Piquerez SA Bassecourt22.03.1990
Monnier et DuRoy SA Bassecourt04.09.1991
Nouvelle Piquerez SA Bassecourt01.02.199630.11.2011
184Schmitz & Cie Nidau/Bienne11.11.196329.01.1966
201Bodemer & Aab La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Hermann Bodemer SA La Chaux-de-Fonds21.11.196826.06.1980
202Joseph Bonnet La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
J. Bonnet & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds22.01.1942
J. Bonnet SA La Chaux-de-Fonds15.10.199403.03.1997
204Marcel Girardin La Chaux-de-Fonds29.03.193517.09.1936
205Georges Méroz La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Georges Méroz Neuchâtel22.01.1942
Meroz SA Neuchâtel28.06.194631.08.1976
206Arnold Montandon La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Auguste Bräuchi, succ. d'Arnold Montandon La Chaux-de-Fonds29.06.1940
A. Bräuchi & fils La Chaux-de-Fonds02.02.1962
Orac SA La Chaux-de-Fonds03.01.1974
Varac SA La Chaux-de-Fonds17.08.197818.06.1981
207A. J. Niestlé Peseux22.09.194716.05.1974
210Rubattel & Weyermann SA La Chaux-de-Fonds21.07.1934
211Spichiger, Hoffmann & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193422.01.1942
212Marcel Etienne Le Locle11.07.193412.06.1952
213Léon Maumary La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Marcanti & Desforuneaux La Chaux-de-Fonds27.06.1941
Pascal Marcanti La Chaux-de-Fonds02.07.1945
A. Ramseyer & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds05.05.1948
René Fer SA La Chaux-de-Fonds17.01.197726.11.1996
214Jacot fils Le Locle11.07.1934
Montandon frères Le Locle22.01.1942
Montandon & Cie Le Locle18.04.194703.03.1967
215G. Schwab La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193421.03.1938
217Jean Lampert La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193417.06.1963
218Egidio Gianoli La Chaux-de-Fonds15.01.1936
J. Beiner, successeur de Egidio Gianoli La Chaux-de-Fonds06.02.195905.01.1984
219Soguel Frères La Chaux-de-Fonds10.04.1947
Soguel Frères & Co. La Chaux-de-Fonds15.01.1957
Soguel & Co. La Chaux-de-Fonds11.11.196326.06.1980
220Henri Baillod, "Le Joaillier" La Chaux-de-Fonds18.10.1951
Maison Henri Baillod, "Le Joaillier", Mme Vve Henri Baiollod, propr. La Chaux-de-Fonds12.06.1957
"Le Joaillier", Maison Henri Baillod S.à r.l. La Chaux-de-Fonds30.05.1960
H. Baillod S.à r.l La Chaux-de-Fonds31.08.196626.06.1980
221Jean Paolini La Chaux-de-Fonds30.12.1953
Paolini SA La Chaux-de-Fonds20.01.1987
CEC SA, Manufacture Cristalor La Chaux-de-Fonds10.01.199428.02.2000
351Percival Graber La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.1934
Emile Borle La Chaux-de-Fonds05.05.1948
William Willemin La Chaux-de-Fonds31.01.1961
Simone Willemin La Chaux-de-Fonds06.10.1972
Revor, Walter Brusa La Chaux-de-Fonds30.03.197330.03.2016
352Serva S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds11.07.193405.07.1943
Serva S.A. Grenchen14.07.194707.03.2014
353Stila SA La Chaux-de-Fonds21.07.193403.12.1936
Stila SA La Chaux-de-Fonds09.03.1937
354Grandjean & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds04.04.1973
Grandjean & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds10.05.1977
Grandjean SA La Chaux-de-Fonds08.09.1981
Grandjean Sàrl La Chaux-de-Fonds07.07.199810.09.2004
355Henri Viatte Delémont25.11.197730.10.1981
356Simon & Membrez SA Delémont03.08.1978
Simon & Membrez SA Courtételle06.03.2009
357Calame & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds07.03.1979
358Bernard Paratte La Chaux-de-Fonds28.12.197803.03.1997
359F. de G. SA Chêne-Bourg09.03.198330.11.2011
360Thérèse Jaquet-Baume La Chaux-de-Fonds17.06.1985
Jaquet-Baume SA La Chaux-de-Fonds03.03.199730.11.2011
361Marcel Robert-Tissot La Chaux-de-Fonds17.03.1986
Marcel Robert, succ. Bruno Affolter La Chaux-de-Fonds01.02.1996
Bruno Affolter SA La Chaux-de-Fonds24.11.2000
Les Artisans Boîtiers SA La Chaux-de-Fonds28.07.2009
362Celinor SA Le Locle21.10.198610.03.1992
363Donzé-Baume SA La Chaux-de-Fonds15.09.1987
Donzé-Baume, Branch of Richemont International SA La Chaux-de-Fonds06.03.200927.09.2012
364Georges Ruedin SA Bassecourt15.09.1987
Manufacture Ruedin SA Bassecourt12.09.200230.11.2011
365Louis Lang SA Porrentruy26.10.1989
366Eric-M. Grandjean E.M.G. SA. La Chaux-de-Fonds04.07.1990
EMG Micromecanique SA La Chaux-de-Fonds25.02.199830.11.2011
367R. Valentini SA Courgenay23.11.1990
Valentini SA Bassecourt10.01.200010.09.2004
368Habra SA Biel/Bienne14.05.199115.10.1993
369Fabrique Pic SA Saignelégier03.05.1991
Jean Paratte Sarl Saignelégier22.03.200530.11.2011
370AS Line SA St-Imier17.07.199119.07.2011
371Froidevaux frères Müntschemier09.09.199230.11.2011
372Miguel Gil-Ayala La Chaux-de-Fonds26.10.1993
Gil Sertissage SA La Chaux-de-Fonds27.09.2012
373Manufacture de boîtes de montres MRP SA / M.R.P. SA Alle17.06.1993
374Jean-Pierre Hadorn Biel/Bienne24.01.199410.09.2004
375Boitor SA Chiasso25.02.199427.03.1996
376Marius Neuenschwander La Chaux-de-Fonds18.01.1994
Neuenschwander Composants Horologers SA La Chaux-de-Fonds18.11.2004
377Paul Wyss SA Courtételle26.05.199910.09.2004
378Queloz SA Saignelégier13.10.2003
400Centre-Boîtes SA Biel/Bienne13.06.196915.05.1975

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Poinçon de Maître No. 2: Hammer With Handle

The “hammer with handle” mark is rather interesting because there are only two numbers listed in the 1934 list, 115 and 160. This is discussed in greater detail in the section The Hammer With Handle Mystery at the head of this page.

People have been kindly sending me sightings of hammer with handle marks so now we have quite a large database of marks, but still very little idea about who the registrants were. Where a number is missing from the table the registrant of that number must have stopped using the mark before the data was centralised in 1934.

The first glimmer of light is that a hammer with handle mark No. 136 has been seen in a Rolex Oyster with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1927 to 1928. This is interesting because my research has shown that these early Oyster cases were all made by the company C.R. Spillmann SA, who also had an mark in the hammer without handle list with the same number, 136.

Does this mean that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list? Almost for certain: yes. Manufacture Favre & Perret SA appears in both lists with registration number 115. Joseph Erard SA, the second of the only two numbers listed in the old 1934 hammer with handle list with registration number 160 has been an error in the official Swiss authorities list. The same name is listed in the hammer head list with registration number 161, so it was long thought that there might not be a direct read across. However, number 160 is missing from the hammer head list, and as latest research brought to light, the PdM2 number 160 was in fact registered to Marc Erard, not to his relative called Joseph, so that there now is no point against a read across.

If you have an example of a Poinçon de Maître of the hammer with handle that is not either 115 or 160, please let me know so that I can add it to the list.

Dating a Hammer with Handle

A watch case with a “hammer with handle” mark that is not either 115 or 160 must have been made between the date when the Poinçon de Maître system began, circa 1925, and 1934.

Hammer with Handle or "Marteau avec manche".

Usage not recorded – see The "Hammer With Handle" Mystery.

No.

Nom de l'utilisateur (Name of the User)

Lieu

Enregistrement

Radiation

39

Seen in the 14 carat gold hunter case of a quarter repeater pocket watch, thanks to Christopher.

102

Seen in a gold watch case with the trademark AK incuse within an incuse rectangular shield.

103

9ct gold cushion case wristwatch around 1930 movement stamped PLUTO, possibly Leon Breitling.

105

Seen in a lady's gold watch by Mido. Also in the 18 carat gold case of a Harwood self winding watch marketed in Barcelona by Blancpain in 1932 as per image here, thanks to Colin J.

The second image shows a trademark AD with pharaoh's head that is not listed in any of my references, but Alcide Droz & Fils (West End Watch Co.) registered a trademark "Nile Watch" beneath a pharaoh's head in 1893 so it seems quite likely that this trademark with the initials AD was also entered by Alcide Droz & Fils. If you know for sure one way or the other, please let me know.

106

Seen in an Alpina Valjoux 13 for German market and another watch (inset) advertised on eBay as per image here, thanks to George.

109

Seen in a lady's wristwatch by Cyma with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 9 carat gold 1927/28 sponsor's mark JC with also Schwob Freres mark.

110

Seen in the 18 carat gold case of a lady's watch with Swiss head of Helvetia hallmark. The watch was bought in the early 80's at a gold consignation in communist Romania. Unfortunately dial, case and movement are otherwise unmarked.

111

Seen in a lady's wristwatch with Tavannes movement and Edinburgh Assay Office import hallmarks for 9 carat gold 1925 to 1926 sponsor's mark SFC for Schwob Freres.

112

Seen in a Gruen gold watch case with Swiss 14k hallmark and the German crown mark from circa 1932. The Swiss hallmark shows 0,585 fineness with two squirrels, one large one small, which indicates the slightly higher 14 carat fineness for counties where this was the minimum legal requirement.

Also seen in a case with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1933/34 and the sponsor's mark GN for George Nicolet of Stauffer, Son and Co. A late use of this mark.

114

Seen in a lady's gold-cased wristwatch marked Dublin import 1927 9 carat gold with Stockwell & Co. sponsor's mark.

115

A. et M. Favre et Perret; the first of the only two numbers in the 1934 list for this mark. The company had the same registration number for a hammer without handle in the 1934 list.

La Chaux-de-Fonds

11.07.1934

Favre & Perret

La Chaux-de-Fonds

02.12.1960

22.06.1966

116

Seen in the 18 carat gold case of an Eterna watch.

117

Seen in an 18 carat gold case marked Baume & Mercier, and also Normana Chronograph with Valjoux 22 15''' movement.

119

Seen in an 18 carat gold case of a jump hour watch, the mechanism bears a mark of a shield with TR, registered by A. Schild in 1927.

120

Seen in a pocket watch case with Swiss hallmarks for 14 carat gold and the German sun and imperial crown mark.

121

Seen in ladies' 9 carat gold watch case with London import hallmarks for 1927/28, sponsor's mark DBS for Dimier Brothers.

122

Seen in a pocket watch with a Marvin movement.

123


Harwood Watch Case: Click image to enlarge.

PdM 2 No. 123 has been seen in the 9 carat gold case of a Harwood self winding watch.

The watch case has London Assay Office import hallmarks for 9 carat (·375) gold and the Black Letter font date letter “n” of 1928 to 1929. Note that the hallmark has been struck upside down to the sponsor's mark and serial number. The number that looks like a 6 as part of the fineness mark is actually a 9 and the symbol of Leo is the right way up, which is not how it was struck by the London Assay Office at the time; see Leo Upside Down for more about this.

The sponsor's mark "GS" in cameo within a rectangular surround with a tab at the top was entered by the carriers Stockwell & Company who acted as assay agents for many Swiss watch case manufacturers. Note that Stockwell & Co. were carriers, they did not make watch cases and they were not the importer.

Thanks to Emre for the image.

124

PdM No. 2 # 124

Seen in a Rotary watch with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1929/1930, sponsor's mark SD (Sylvain Dreyfuss).

Also seen in an unidentified nine carat gold watch case with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1926 to 1927 (date letter "d"), shown in the image here.

125

135

Seen in a gold watch case of a lady's watch by Doxa.

The case has the serial number 551 779.

126

Seen in a lady's watch case with Swiss hallmarks for 14 carat gold and the German sun and imperial crown mark.

130

PdM No. 2 # 130

Seen in a nine carat gold watch with Stockwell and Company's sponsor mark GS and London Assay Office import hallmarks for 1926/27.

The movement is an A. Schild calibre 168 which carries the trademark "Sunbeam 554" engraved on the barrel bridge.

132

Seen in a Swiss chronograph wristwatch with 18 carat gold case bought in Italy after World War 1.

133

Seen in a Swiss pocket watch with 14 carat 0.585 gold case.

Also seen in a 9 carat gold case of a Rolex watch with the hallmarks mandated by the Swiss 1924 Act and Rolex 20 Worlds Records, dating the case to between circa 1927 and 1933.

Also seen in the 9 carat gold case of a Vulcain Catanach's pocket watch with Swiss 1924 hallmarks shown in the image here. The circular mark above the Swiss federal cross is not part of the hallmark, it is a witness mark from the case touching a rotating part of the movement. This is common in gold cases because they were often made very thin, 0·3mm or less.

134

Seen in a watch case with the trademark MD in rectangle with convex top registered 28 July 1934 by Fils de Moise Dreyfuss, Fabrique de Montres Rotary, La Chaux-de-Fonds. It seems likely that the PdM was registered by a separate company that made the watch case.

135

135

Seen in the gold case of a trench watch with Sylvain Dreyfuss' sponsor mark SD and London Assay Office import hallmarks for 9 carat (·375) gold with the date letter "k" for 1925/26.

136

C.R. Spillmann SA

Spillmann's PdM 2 No. 136

Spillmann's PdM 1 No. 136

The hammer with handle mark with number 136 has been seen in the case of a Rolex Oyster with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for nine carat gold and the date letter "d" of 1926 to 1927. It has also been seen in the case of a lady's ROLCO wristwatch with the R.W.C.LTD sponsor's mark and Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for nine carat gold, the date letter again being the "d" of 1926 to 1927.

This is interesting because all other early Rolex Oyster cases that I have seen have PdM No.1, the hammer head, with the registration number 136 which is recorded in the 1934 lists as being C.R. Spillmann SA. One of these hammer head marks is also reproduced here, from a Rolex Oyster case with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1927 to 1928.

I am sure that all the early Rolex Oyster cases were made by C.R. Spillmann SA, and it seems likely that Spillman also made the gold ROLCO case, so it appears that Spillman's registration number was the same 136 for both PdM 1, hammer head, and PdM 2, the hammer with handle.

This evidence seems to show a changeover from the hammer with handle mark, used by Spillman until 1926/27, to the hammer head mark in 1927/28. We know that by 1934 the use of the hammer with handle mark had virtually ceased, there are only two registrants listed on the 1934 hammer with handle list, and this must be a clue to what happened. It appears that the use of the hammer with handle was discontinued in favour of the hammer head, which was a smaller and more discreet mark that watch manufacturers would have preferred.

Read Across

The discovery that the registration number 136 was registered to C.R. Spillmann SA for both PdM1, the hammer head, and PdM2, the hammer with handle, suggests that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list.

Does this mean that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list? Almost for certain: yes. Manufacture Favre & Perret SA appears in both lists with registration number 115. Joseph Erard SA, the second of the only two numbers listed in the 2007 hammer with handle list with registration number 160 is an error. The same name is listed in the hammer head list with registration number 161, so it was long thought that there might not be a direct read across. However, number 160 is missing from the hammer head list, and as latest research brought to light, the PdM2 number 160 was in fact registered to Marc Erard, not to his relative called Joseph, so that there now is no point against a read across. PdM1 No. 161 = Joseph Erard, PdM2 No. 160 = Marc Erard.

Other Companies

The hammer with handle mark with number 136 has also been seen in a watch case with Glasgow Assay Office import marks for nine carat gold and the date letter "d" for 1926 to 1927 and a sponsor's mark entered by Samuel Norman Burgess of London. The case was clearly made by C.R. Spillmann SA for a customer other than Rolex, so seeing Spillmann's PdM on a case does not necessarily mean that the watch has any connection to Rolex.

138

Seen in a lady's watch with 18 carat white gold case sold by Mersmann, who are still an upmarket jewellers in Lugano, Switzerland, founded in 1925. The face is Art Deco which suggests a 1920/30 date that fits in exactly with the Hammer with Handle mystery. The case also has a crown within a sun mark. This is a German mark but doesn't always mean that the watch was imported into Germany, see German Marks.

142

Seen in a gold pocket watch with London import hallmarks.

143

Seen in a chronograph wristwatch with an 18 carat gold case marked with the Swiss head of helvetia hallmark.

144

The smaller image shows the hammer with handle No. 144 mark seen in a ladies' gold wristwatch with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 9 carat gold, the date letter “f” for 1928 to 1929. The sponsors mark in the case is R&S for Rotherham & Sons, and the movement is marked “RANDS” [R AND S], a trademark of Rotherham & Sons.

The larger image shows the hammer with handle No. 144 mark in the 14 carat gold case of a watch Le Phare savonnette watch with chronograph and repetition. The fineness mark “14K / 56 / 0·585” has Swiss hallmarks for 14 carat gold for export either side of the mark; two squirrels, one large one small. The case also has the sun and imperial crown (sonne und reichskrone) mark that was struck by Swiss case makers onto gold cases that might be exported to Germany.

145

Seen in a lady's watch with Edinburgh import marks for 9 carat gold with date letter for 1927 to 1928. The sponsor's mark is AGR for Robert Pringle & Sons.

The trademark is the initials RV run together on the sloping face of a pyramid. This mark was registered by the Actua Watch Co. SA of Plainpalais, Switzerland, on 14 June 1927. Actua also used the name Nitramex SA and had addresses in Bienne (1918-1925) and Geneva from 1925 until at least 1947. It was most likely simply a trading company and not a manufacture. Unfortunately this gives us no clue to the maker of the watchcase.

158


Genex Case: Click image to enlarge.

Seen in the gold case of a lady's Genex wristwatch with the Swiss 9 carat hallmarks mandated by the Swiss 1924 Act.

The case has Glasgow Assay Office (two opposed and prone letters "F") import hallmarks for 9 carat gold, the date letter is the "f" of the hallmarking year from July 1928 to June 1929, remember that date letter punches were used over two calendar years. The sponsor's mark is the RWCLtd. of the Rolex Watch Company.

Genex is a name registered in 1920 by Hans Wilsdorf as one of many other brands that he created to sell at various price points below the top Rolex brand. The movement is engraved “Genex Prima”. This movement was made by Fontainemelon and was used in many of Rolex's cheaper brand watches, see Fontainemelon FHF30.

160

Marc Erard; the second of the only two numbers in the database for this mark.

Read Across

The discovery that the registration number 136 was registered to C.R. Spillmann SA for both PdM1, the hammer head, and PdM2, the hammer with handle, suggests that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list.

Does this mean that if you have a watch case with an unidentified hammer with handle mark you can simply look up the registrant in the hammer head list? Almost for certain: yes. Manufacture Favre & Perret SA appears in both lists with registration number 115. Joseph Erard SA, the second of the only two numbers listed in the 2007 hammer with handle list with registration number 160 is an error. The same name is listed in the hammer head list with registration number 161, so it was long thought that there might not be a direct read across. However, number 160 is missing from the hammer head list, and as latest research brought to light, the PdM2 number 160 was in fact registered to Marc Erard, not to his relative called Joseph, so that there now is no point against a read across. PdM1 No. 161 = Joseph Erard, PdM2 No. 160 = Marc Erard.

Noirmont

11.07.1934

29.06.1940

161

Seen in a lady's 9 carat gold watch case with Swiss Export Hallmark for gold of fineness lower than 14 carats introduced in 1924.

From 1 May 1924 an official fineness warranty character, the mark of the Swiss Federal Cross or “Eidgenössisches Kreuz”, just visible towards the top of the image, was allowed to be stamped on gold cases below 14 carat.

180

Seen in a Swiss wristwatch imported by Stauffer & Co., the nine carat gold case has Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1926 to 1927.

182

Seen in a 9 carat gold watch case with Glasgow Assay Office import hallmarks for 1928 to 1929.

The movement is marked Buren and the case has the sponsor's mark W.H.S of H Williamson Ltd. The date of 1928 or 1929 makes this one of the last Buren watches imported by Williamsons before their collapse and the takeover of the Buren agency by Rotherham & Sons.

Also seen in the 18 carat gold case of a Rolls wristwatch made by Blancpain, as shown in the second image. The case has a Swiss “Head of Helvetia" hallmark for 18 carat gold, and a French owl import mark. This shows that the case was separately tested when it was imported into France. Unfortunately neither the Swiss hallmark or the French import hallmark carry any date information.

The trademark below the serial number looks like “SWC”, but I have not been able to identify who registered this mark.

The Blancpain Rolls was a self winding (automatic) watch designed by Blancpain and the French watchmaker Léon Hatot. The movement was placed inside a carriage which could slide from end to end inside the rectangular case. A system of levers and gears used this movement to wind the mainspring. By using the whole mass of the movement, the mechanism could be used in watches that were too small to work with a pivoting mass that was separate from the movement such as the Harwood.

201

Seen in a lady's 18 carat gold watch case with Swiss head of Helvetia.

202

Seen in a lady's 18 carat art gold art-deco watch case with Swiss head of Helvetia.

203

Seen twice in ladies' 18 carat 0·750 gold watch cases with Swiss head of Helvetia hallmark. Thanks to Vanessa for the image here.

205

Seen in a lady's watch case with Swiss head of Helvetia hallmark and 18 carat mark, containing a movement by Tavannes. Thanks to Jay for the image.

311

Seen in a Borgel screw watch case with Glasgow Assay Office 18 carat hallmarks for 1931 to 1932, containing a movement by Tavannes.

This case was made after the Borgel company had been taken over in 1924 by the Taubert family, which makes the registration number 311 interesting compared to the registration numbers of Manufacture Taubert for PdM 1 and PdM 5, both of which were No. 11.

321

Seen in a lady's 18K 0,750 watch case with Swiss head of Helvetia hallmark. The case is in the “art deco” style. Thanks to Glenn for the image.

This is a remarkably high number, a long way from the main sequence. Since I started this exercise numbers between 100 and the low 200s have been reported so that there is now a reasonable sequence of these with no obvious bunching or very large gaps, but then this one jumps nearly 120 places. I don't know why.

The movement is marked "Dueber Hampden Watch Co, Swiss", with two adjustments and 15 jewels. The America Dueber Watch Case Company and the Hampden Watch Company moved to Canton, Ohio USA, in 1888. In 1923 they merged to become the Dueber-Hampden Watch Company. The watch here and its case were entirely made in Switzerland. It is believed to have been manufactured by the Venus Watch Co. of La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland in the 1920s.

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Poinçons de Maître No. 3: FFBA Marquee

Bernd has now separated PdM3 and PdM4 to make the lists clearer and easier to understand

Where the date of Enregistrement is 1934, which a lot of them are, this refers to the date when the cantonal records were centralised at the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern. It is not the date at which the mark was first used. The system of Poinçons de Maître was introduced in the mid 1920s and a mark recorded as “Enregistrement xx.xx.1934” was almost certainly not first used on that date. A mark with this date was most likely used earlier, and could have been used from the very start of the system in the 1920s.

Where a number is missing from the table, the registrant of that number must have gone out of business some time after the system was first used at cantonal level and before the data was centralised in 1934.

Where the date of "Radiation" or striking off is blank, the company was still in existence when this data was compiled in September 2007.

PdM 3: FFBA Marquee.

Used by Fédération de Fabricants de Boîtes Argent (FFBA) (federation of silver case makers), later Fédération Suisse des associations de Fabricants de boîtes de montre (FB) then Union Suisse des fabricants de boîtes de montre (USFB). Only for silver watch cases made in the Swiss cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura.

No.Nom de l'utilisateurLieuEnregistrementRadiation
1Berthoud & Cie S.A. Bienne 26.07.1934
S. Graber S.A. Renan BE 31.08.195326.06.1980
2Bielna S.A. Biel/Bienne 26.07.193409.09.1992
3Les fils de J. Breguet-Bréting Biel/Bienne 26.07.193419.12.1945
4La Centrale Biel/Bienne 26.07.193415.02.1978
5Heng & Bühlmann Biel/Bienne 26.07.193409.12.1935
6Walter & Sury Biel/Bienne 26.06.1934
Nobs & Walter Biel/Bienne 28.12.1940
Hermann Nobs Biel/Bienne 28.06.194604.05.1973
7A. Maeder-Leschot, S.A. Biel/Bienne 26.07.193410.03.1948
8Meyer & Co Biel/Bienne 26.07.1934
Meyer & Wetzel Biel/Bienne 02.07.194521.07.1962
10Schmitz & Cie Nidau 26.07.193406.10.1972
12Les fils de Ls. Ed. Châtelain & Co S.A. Tramelan 26.07.193427.06.1941
Averos S.A. Boécourt 22.03.196213.11.2001
13E. Gindrat Tramelan 26.07.1934
Fabrique de boîtes argent, métal et acier Tramelan S.A. Tramelan 25.11.1938
Fabrique de boîtes Tramelan SA Tramelan 05.07.194306.10.1972
14Jean Finger Lengnau BE/Longeau 26.07.1934
H. Finger AG Lengnau BE/Longeau 05.05.196127.09.2012
15Girard Frères Grenchen 26.07.193405.05.1961
16Heuri Frères Welschenrohr/Rosières 26.07.193409.12.1935
18Schmitz frères & Co. S.A. Grenchen 26.07.1934
19Ducommun & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.193406.03.1936
20Fils de Georges Ducommun La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.1934
Paul Ducommun SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 20.12.1972
Cristalor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 21.04.198930.04.1993
22Les fils de Robert Gygax St-Imier 26.07.1934
Nobilia S.A. Porrentruy 02.02.196202.04.1969
23Pauli Frères Villeret 26.07.193419.10.1968
24Charles Reinbold La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.1934
Charles Reinbold S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds 09.12.1947
Manufacture de boîtes de montres Germaine Sanglard S.A. Cornol 02.02.1962
Etablissements Miserez-Sanglard SA Saignelégier 15.10.1970
Alphonse Miserez SA Saignelégier 17.01.1977
BGM Miserez SA Saignelégier 08.01.199130.11.2011
25Gerber Frères S.A. Delémont 26.07.193409.12.1935
26Louis Lang S.A. Porrentruy 26.07.1934
27Lüthy Frères Delémont 26.07.193402.12.1960
28Joseph Varrin Fontenais 26.07.193427.08.1959
30H. & L. Hamel Frères Noiraigue 26.07.1934
G. Hamel & Cie, successeurs Noiraigue 21.07.1962
31Bouille Frères Les Bois 26.07.1934
Achille Bouille Les Bois 22.01.1942
Les Fils de A. Bouille Les Bois 04.05.1959
Fabrique de boîtes P. Etienne SA Les Bois 02.06.1992
33Crevoisier & Cie Fornet-Dessus 26.07.193421.12.1935
34Alfred Donzé-Baume Les Breuleux 26.07.1934
Les Fils de A. Donzé-Baume Les Breuleux 21.07.1962
Donzé-Baume SA Les Breuleux 31.08.1976
Donzé-Baume, Branch of Richemont International SA Les Breuleux 06.03.200927.09.2012
36Erard & Cie Le Noirmont 26.07.193403.12.1936
37Frossard Frères Les Pommerats 26.07.1934
Léon Frossard Les Pommerats 13.08.193602.07.1945
38Auguste Gigon Vautenaivre 26.07.1934
Antoine Bouille Neuchâtel 24.12.1946
G. & E. Bouille, successeurs d'Antoine Bouille Neuchâtel 21.07.1962
G. & E. Bouille SA Neuchâtel 22.06.196827.06.1975
39Jeangros Frères & Cie (Vernier S.A., Undervelier) Montfaucon 26.07.1934
Blanches-Fontaines S.A. Undervelier J.B. 04.05.195902.04.1969
40Albin Jobin Saignelégier 26.07.193428.12.1940
41A.-C. Miserez Saignelégier 26.07.1934
A.-C. Miserez SA Saignelégier 16.12.194415.10.1970
42Arthur Miserez Saignelégier 26.07.1934
Manufacture Mirval S.A. Saignelégier 18.04.194715.10.1970
43Pic Frères Le Noirmont 26.07.1934
Fernand Pic Le Noirmont 15.01.1957
Pic SA Le Noirmont 07.04.1987
Jean Paratte SARL Saignelégier 22.03.200530.11.2011
44A. Prétat Montfaucon 26.07.1934
Arthur Prétat & fils S.à.r.L. Porrentruy 28.06.1946
Henri Prétat SA Porrentruy 24.07.1985
Prétat SA Cornol 13.11.2001
45Les fils de Célestin Voisard Les Pommerats 26.07.1934
Gustave Voisard Les Pommerats 19.12.1945
Les Fils de Gustave Voisard Les Pommerats 21.07.1962
Voisard SA Les Pommerats 31.08.197628.03.1983
46Huguenin Frères & Cie Le Locle 26.07.1934
Huguenin Frères & Cie S.A., Fabrique "Niel" Le Locle 05.06.1939
Boîtes de montres Huguenin S.A. Le Locle 15.01.195714.10.1977
47Monnier & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 23.04.1970
Eric Monnier & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 22.03.199010.03.1992
48Oréade, Girardin & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 23.04.1970
Oréade, Manufacture de Boîtes S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds 30.07.1997
49Helbein Frères & Co. Genève 26.07.193421.12.1935
Pfenniger & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 24.06.197126.06.1980
50Société anonyme pour la fabrication de la boîte argent Le Noirmont 17.08.1937
Société anonyme pour la fabrication de la boîte argent et métal Le Noirmont 09.03.194929.04.1966
Les Fils de Jos. Erard S.à.r.l. Le Noirmont 05.03.1969
Joseph Erard SA Le Noirmont 18.02.2002
51Artisanor SA Carouge GE 06.10.197228.03.1983
52Jean Humbert & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 31.10.1973
Bräuchi & Humbert SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 13.02.1979
Orac SA, André Bräuchi Le Locle 07.01.198119.07.2011
53Cédex, Charles Dubois SA Le Locle 14.02.197416.06.1982
54Revor, Walter Brusa La Chaux-de-Fonds 14.02.197430.03.2016
55Pierre-Antoine Nardin & Cie Le Locle 14.02.1974
Classicor SA Le Locle 17.08.1978
Classicor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 28.03.198310.03.1992
56Stila SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 14.02.1974
57Edmor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 14.02.197428.03.1983
58Gabus Frères, Oracier SA Le Locle 14.02.197426.06.1980
59A. & J.-L Glauser, "Diamantor" Montmollin 14.02.197428.03.1983
60Union suisse des fabricants de boîtes de montres (USFB) Biel / Bienne 21.03.1970
61Jean Paolini La Chaux-de-Fonds 14.02.1974
CEC SA, Maufacture Cristaloe La Chaux-de-Fonds 10.01.199428.02.2000
62Max Fuchs Genève 05.05.1975
62Max Fuchs SA Genève 18.06.198124.08.1994
63Henri Viatte Delémont 25.11.197730.10.1981
64Bernard Paratte La Chaux-de-Fonds 28.12.197803.03.1997
65Froidevaux frères Müntschemier 08.03.199130.11.2011
66Habra SA Biel / Bienne 14.05.199115.10.1993
67CEC SA, Manufacture Cristalor La Chaux-de-Fonds 22.07.199128.02.2000
68Paul Wyss SA Courtételle 26.05.199910.09.2004

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Poinçon de Maître No. 4: Arbalète or Crossbow

Bernd has now separated PdM3 and PdM4 to make the lists clearer and easier to understand

Where the date of Enregistrement is 1934, which a lot of them are, this refers to the date when the cantonal records were centralised at the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern. It is not the date at which the mark was first used. The system of Poinçons de Maître was introduced in the mid 1920s and a mark recorded as “Enregistrement xx.xx.1934” was almost certainly not first used on that date. A mark with this date was most likely used earlier, and could have been used from the very start of the system in the 1920s.

Where a number is missing from the table, the registrant of that number must have gone out of business some time after the system was first used at cantonal level and before the data was centralised in 1934.

Where the date of "Radiation" or striking off is blank, the company was still in existence when this data was compiled in September 2007.

Arbalète or Crossbow.

Only for silver watch cases made in the Swiss cantons of Neuchâtel and Jura.

No.Nom de l'utilisateurLieuEnregistrementRadiation
1Berthoud & Cie S.A. Bienne 26.07.1934
S. Graber S.A. Renan BE 31.08.195326.06.1980
2Bielna S.A. Biel/Bienne 26.07.193409.09.1992
3Les fils de J. Breguet-Bréting Biel/Bienne 26.07.193419.12.1945
4La Centrale Biel/Bienne 26.07.193415.02.1978
5Heng & Bühlmann Biel/Bienne 26.07.193409.12.1935
6Walter & Sury Biel/Bienne 26.06.1934
Nobs & Walter Biel/Bienne 28.12.1940
Hermann Nobs Biel/Bienne 28.06.194604.05.1973
7A. Maeder-Leschot, S.A. Biel/Bienne 26.07.193405.05.1948
8Meyer & Co Biel/Bienne 26.07.1934
Meyer & Wetzel Biel/Bienne 02.07.194521.07.1962
10Schmitz & Cie Nidau 26.07.193406.10.1972
12Les fils de Ls. Ed. Châtelain & Co S.A. Tramelan 26.07.193427.06.1941
Averos S.A. Boécourt 22.03.196213.11.2001
13E. Gindrat Tramelan 26.07.1934
Fabrique de boîtes argent, métal et acier Tramelan S.A. Tramelan 25.11.1938
Fabrique de boîtes Tramelan SA Tramelan 05.07.194306.10.1972
14Jean Finger Lengnau BE/Longeau 26.07.1934
H. Finger AG Lengnau BE/Longeau 05.05.196103.12.2012
15Girard Frères Grenchen 26.07.193405.05.1961
16Heuri Frères Welschenrohr/Rosières 26.07.193409.12.1935
18Schmitz frères & Co. S.A. Grenchen 26.07.1934
19Ducommun & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.193406.03.1936
20Fils de Georges Ducommun La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.1934
Paul Ducommun SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 20.12.1972
Cristalor SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 21.04.198930.04.1993
22Les fils de Robert Gygax St-Imier 26.07.1934
Nobilia S.A. Porrentruy 02.02.196202.04.1969
23Pauli Frères Villeret 26.07.193419.10.1968
24Charles Reinbold La Chaux-de-Fonds 26.07.1934
Charles Reinbold S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds 09.12.1947
Manufacture de boîtes de montres Germaine Sanglard S.A. Cornol 02.02.1962
Etablissements Miserez-Sanglard SA Saignelégier 15.10.1970
Alphonse Miserez SA Saignelégier 17.01.1977
BGM Miserez SA Saignelégier 08.01.199103.12.2012
25Gerber Frères S.A. Delémont 26.07.193409.12.1935
26Louis Lang S.A. Porrentruy 26.07.1934
27Lüthy Frères Delémont 26.07.193402.12.1960
28Joseph Varrin Fontenais 26.07.193427.08.1959
30H. & L. Hamel Frères Noiraigue 26.07.1934
G. Hamel & Cie. successeurs Noiraigue 21.07.1962
31Bouille Frères Les Bois 26.07.1934
Achille Bouille Les Bois 22.01.1942
Les Fils de A. Bouille Les Bois 04.05.1959
Fabrique de boîtes P. Etienne SA Les Bois 02.06.1992
33Crevoisier & Cie Fornet-Dessus 26.07.193421.12.1935
34Alfred Donzé-Baume Les Breuleux 26.07.1934
Les Fils de A. Donzé-Baume Les Breuleux 21.07.1962
Donzé-Baume SA Les Breuleux 31.08.1976
Donzé-Baume, Branch of Richemont International SA Les Breuleux 06.03.200927.09.2012
36Erard & Cie Le Noirmont 26.07.193403.12.1936
37Frossard Frères Les Pommerats 26.07.1934
Léon Frossard Les Pommerats 13.08.193602.07.1945
38Auguste Gigon Vautenaivre 26.07.1934
Antoine Bouille Neuchâtel 24.12.1946
G. & E. Bouille, successeurs d'Antoine Bouille Neuchâtel 21.07.1962
G. & E. Bouille SA Neuchâtel 22.06.196827.06.1975
39Jeangros Frères & Cie (Vernier S.A., Undervelier) Montfaucon 26.07.1934
Blanches-Fontaines S.A. Undervelier J.B. 04.05.195902.04.1969
40Albin Jobin Saignelégier 26.07.193428.12.1940
41A.-C. Miserez Saignelégier 26.07.1934
A.-C. Miserez SA Saignelégier 16.12.194415.10.1970
42Arthur Miserez Saignelégier 26.07.1934
Manufacture Mirval S.A. Saignelégier 18.04.194715.10.1970
43Pic Frères Le Noirmont 26.07.1934
Fernand Pic Le Noirmont 15.01.1957
Pic SA Le Noirmont 07.04.1987
Jean Paratte SARL Saignelégier 22.03.200527.09.2012
44A. Prétat Montfaucon 26.07.1934
Arthur Prétat & fils S.à.r.L. Porrentruy 28.06.1946
Henri Prétat SA Porrentruy 24.07.1985
Prétat SA Cornol 13.11.2001
45Les fils de Célestin Voisard Les Pommerats 26.07.1934
Gustave Voisard Les Pommerats 19.12.1945
Les Fils de Gustave Voisard Les Pommerats 21.07.1962
Voisard SA Les Pommerats 31.08.197628.03.1983
46Huguenin Frères & Cie Le Locle 26.07.1934
Huguenin Frères & Cie S.A., Fabrique "Niel" Le Locle 05.06.1939
Boîtes de montres Huguenin S.A. Le Locle 15.01.195714.10.1977
47Monnier & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 04.05.1971
Eric Monnier & Cie SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 22.03.199010.03.1992
48Oréade, Girardin & Cie La Chaux-de-Fonds 04.05.1971
Oréade, Manufacture de Boîtes S.A. La Chaux-de-Fonds 30.07.1997
49Helbein Frères & Co. Genève 26.07.193421.12.1935
50Société anonyme pour la fabrication de la boîte argent Le Noirmont 17.08.193729.04.1966
Société anonyme pour la fabrication de la boîte argent et métal Le Noirmont 09.03.194929.04.1966
67CEC SA, Manufacture Cristalor La Chaux-de-Fonds 22.07.1991
Manufacture de Haute Horlogerie Cartier SA La Chaux-de-Fonds 14.05.200114.05.2001

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Poinçon de Maître No. 5: Key of Geneva

Where the date of Enregistrement is in 1934, which a lot of them are, this refers to the date when the cantonal records were centralised at the Central Bureau for the Control of Precious Metals in Bern. It is not the date at which the mark was first used. The system of Poinçons de Maître was introduced in the mid 1920s and a mark recorded as “Enregistrement 08.09.1934” was almost certainly not first used on that date. A mark with this date was most likely used earlier, and could have been used from the very start of the system in the 1920s.

Where a number is missing from the table, the registrant of that number must have gone out of business some time after the system was first used at cantonal level and before the data was centralised in 1934. At the moment we have no way to know who that company was.

Where the date of "Radiation" or striking off is blank, the company was still in existence after the last accessible publications dated 2017.

PdM 5, key of Geneva: For gold and platinum watch cases minimum thickness 0.3mm made in Geneva.

NB: This table will be updated when new information is discovered, so keep checking back from time to time!

No.Nom de l'utilisateurLieuEnregistrementRadiation
1Wenger, A. & E. Genève08.09.1934
Wenger, E. Genève22.01.1942
Ed. Wenger SA Genève12.06.195207.04.1992
2Baumgartner, Fritz, S. A. Genève08.09.1934
Fritz Baumgartner Genève16.02.1935
F. Baumgartner Genève28.12.1940
F. Baumgartner SA Genève31.01.196104.02.1973
3

This mark PdM5 No. 3 in an 18 carat gold watch case with the Swiss hallmark of the head of Helvetia is not on the Swiss authorities list, which is supposed to show all marks in use between 1934 and 2007, although the watch dates circa 1950.

The watch is a Jaeger le Coultre wristwatch with a Cal. 480 movement.

The horizontal rectangular mark with a slash through it and 4/10 numbers below refers to the case thickness 0.4mm, which is thicker than the minimum of 0.3mm allowed under this mark.

Thanks to Conrad for the image.

4Antoine Gerlach SA Genève08.09.1934
Gerlach, Antoine SA Genève20.12.197229.08.1977
5Croisier, Georges, succ. de Lacreuze et Cie. Genève08.09.1934
Croisier, Georges SA, ancienne maison Lacreuze & Cie Genève02.03.1970
J.P.E. SA, Département boîtes Genève07.03.1971
Genevor SA Meyrin22.03.199015.04.1991
6Tavernier, François Genève04.10.1937
François Tavernier SA St. Imier02.02.196221.07.1962
7Rutschi, Werner Genève08.07.193805.11.1958
Degoumois, Henri Genève05.09.1957
Degoumois, H., J.-Michel Degoumois succ. Genève18.06.1981
Fabior, Olivier Judas Genève25.07.1984
Fabior, Olivier Judas Gimel20.01.1987
8C. Markowski Genève08.09.193417.06.1963
9Emile Vichet Genève08.09.1934
Emile Vichet SA Genève14.11.195102.12.1960
10Robert Meylan Genève08.09.193429.06.1940
Union suisse des fabricants de boîtes de montres (USFB) Bienne18.08.1969
11Taubert & Fils Genève08.09.1934
Taubert Frères S.A. Genève05.06.1939
Taubert Frères Genève16.04.195116.05.1974
12 Genex SA Chêne-Bourg29.06.194019.12.1985
13Humbert-Droz, Edouard Genève08.09.1934
Humbert-Droz & Fortner Genève24.10.193517.08.1937
14Bonard Genève08.09.1934
J. Bonard & fils Genève22.06.1942
J. + E. Bonard & Cie. Genève16.12.194429.10.1975
15Eric Wegner Genève08.09.1934
Robert Staffelbach Genève14.11.1955
R. Staffelbach & U. Rotach Genève02.12.1960
Uli Rotach Genève14.10.1965
Uli Rotach Carouge GE22.05.196724.09.1968
17Dethurens & Schneider Genève08.09.1934
Georges Schneider Genève18.08.193927.06.1941
18A. Chappuis Genève08.09.193412.06.1937
19Kaufmann & Houriet Genève25.11.1938
Marc Houriet Genève27.12.193902.03.1970
20E. & A. Rigacci frères Genève08.09.193429.10.1937
"Artinasor", Otto Scherrer Genève28.10.1947
"Artinasor", Otto Scherrer Carouge GE27.12.1967
Artisanor SA Carouge GE18.08.196928.03.1983
21Hauck & Maury Genève08.09.1934
Hauck & Maury SA. Genève28.06.1946
Maury & Meyer S.A. Genève06.11.1948
Ponti & Meyer SA Genève01.09.1970
Ponti & Cie. SA Genève30.08.197215.03.2017
22Jean Canova Genève08.09.1934
H. Maire SA Genève12.06.195212.07.1954
23Eggly & Cie Genève08.09.193422.03.1990
24Rodolphe Sogno Genève08.09.1934
Jean Sogno Genève05.06.1939
Sogno SA Genève11.11.196325.07.1986
26Ponti, Gennari & Cie Genève08.09.193418.12.1969
27Ignace Klauber Genève08.09.1934
Bergerioux, succ. D'Ignace Klauber Genève22.01.1942
Bergerioux & Brera Genève11.11.1963
Gustave Brera, succ. de Bergerioux & Brera Genève04.11.1965
Adea Fontan Sàrl Les Acacias15.09.200017.12.2013
28Marcel Guyot Genève08.09.193429.06.1940
Marcel Pugin S.A. Genève28.10.1947
Ateliers Réunis S.A. Genève28.05.1964
Patek Philippe SA Grand-Lancy12.01.1998
Patek Philippe SA Geneve Genève 221.12.2016
29Weber & Cie. Genève08.09.1934
Weber & Cie. SA Genève25.11.1938
Weber & Cie Société Anonyme, Genève, c/o Fiduciaire Jacques Morand & Cie Genève25.06.2014
30Pellarin & Cie. Genève08.09.193416.05.1974
31Albert Lassieur Genève08.09.193428.12.1940
32Gay Frères Genève08.09.1934
Gay Frères SA Genève02.07.194404.05.2000
33Jules Mégevand Genève08.09.193403.12.1936
34Guido Meuwly Genève08.09.193429.12.1937
Guido Meuwly Genève28.02.1938
G. Meuwly & fils Genève10.05.1977
G. Meuwly & Fils, P. Meuwly succ. Genève10.09.200422.03.2005
35Hertig Frères Genève29.08.1963
Hertig frères SA Genève07.06.1971
Claude et Francis Hertig Carouge GE07.12.197427.03.1996
36F. Kuhn S.A. Genève11.11.196327.06.1975
37R. Staffelbach Genève29.04.196629.08.1977
38Max Fuchs Genève31.10.1973
Max Fuchs SA Genève18.06.198124.08.1994
39Hertig frères SA Genève21.03.1974
Stylor SA Genève18.01.197525.07.1986
40Centre-Boîtes SA Biel/Bienne13.06.196915.05.1975
41René Chambaz Genève12.12.197429.10.1975
42F. de G. SA Chêne-Bourg31.05.198330.11.2011
43Florian Favre SA Les Acacias28.02.198930.11.2011
44Tournor, Charles Brandt & Fils Genève25.02.199124.08.1994
45Ecodor SA Plan-les-Ouates27.11.1991
45Franck Muller Watch Land SA Genthod23.01.200619.07.2011

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Poinçon de Maître No. 6: shield

The numbers for PdM6 which had been registered in October 1957 are matching the numbers of PdM6. Not all manufacturers who went for a registration of PdM5 also went for a registration of Poinçon de Maître No. 6 because they did not consider to manufacture lower standard cases

The list for Poinçon de Maître No. 6 is closed and believed to be complete because the last registrant (Weber & Cie) was erased from this list in 2017 and the shield mark was in consequence erased as well.

PdM 6, shield.

For gold and platinum watch cases thickness less than 0.3mm made in Geneva.

No.Nom de l'utilisateurLieuEnregistrementRadiation
1Ed. Wenger SA Genève 03.06.1958 22.03.1990
2F. Baumgartner Genève 03.06.1958
F. Baumgartner S.A. Genève 31.01.1961 04.05.1973
5Georges Croisier MGenève 03.06.1958
Georges Croisier SA, ancienne maison Lacreuze & Cie Genève 02.03.1970
J.P.E. SA, Département boîtes Genève 07.06.1971
Genèvor SA Genève 22.03.1990 15.04.1991
6François Tavernier Genève 03.06.1958
François Tavernier S.A. St. Imier 02.02.1962 21.07.1962
9Emile Vichet S.A. Genève 03.06.1958 02.12.1960
12Genex S.A. Chène-Bourg GE 03.06.1958 19.12.1985
20Oscar Scherrer, "Artisanor" Genève 24.12.1958
Oscar Scherrer, "Artisanor" Carouge GE 27.12.1967
Artisanor SA Carouge GE 18.08.1969 28.03.1983
23Eggly & Cie Genève 17.07.1959 22.03.1990
24Sogno S.A. Genève 03.06.1958 25.07.1986
26Ponti, Gennari & Cie Genève 03.06.1958 18.12.1969
29Weber & Cie S.A. Genève 03.06.1958
Weber & Cie Socété Anonyme, C/o Fiduciaire Jacques Morand & Cie Genève 25.06.2014 04.10.2017
36F. Kuhn S.A. Genève 11.11.1963 27.06.1975

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Copyright © David Boettcher 2006 - 2021 all rights reserved. This page updated May 2021. W3CMVS. Back to the top of the page.